Science (Combined & Separate)

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ks3 science

The vision of the science department is to ensure all students acquire the powerful knowledge required to think hard and make informed decisions about how the world around them works. We offer an extensive and connected knowledge base which is well sequenced so skills and knowledge are transferred from students’ working to long term memory so they can progress to more complex content later. We will develop cross-curricular links and scientific cultural capital, scientific literacy and an understanding of the scientific method.

Success of the vision will be determined by the following metrics:

  • Excellent outcomes and progress in assessments.
  • High uptake in separate science, key stage 5 science and future destinations.
  • Students will be able to confidently engage with scientific discussion, the scientific method and are scientifically fluent.
  • Inclusive uptake to extracurricular scientific activities.
  • Be able to apply their knowledge to new and unfamiliar situations.

MYP Assessment Criteria

Criterion A

Knowledge & Understanding

Criterion B

Inquiry & Design

Criterion C

Processing & evaluating

Criterion D

Reflecting on the Impacts of Science

Key Concept

Change

Related Concept(s)

Interactions

Link to assessment

A, B, C and D

Statement of inquiry

Earth is a dynamic system that is constantly interacting and changing

ATLs

  • In order for students to design a scientific investigation, students will need to use appropriate forms of writing for different purposes.  Example – deconstruct a model of a high quality piece of practical method writing then create their own for plotting magnetic fields lines and investigating solubility.  
  • In order for students to collect data safely, students will need to take responsibility for one’s own actions.  Example – evaluate risk and create a basic risk assessment.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Compare the layers of the Earth
  • Describe the Earth’s Magnetic field
  • Explain how a compass works in relation to Earth’s magnetic field
  • Describe how magnets interact
  • Describe how to represent magnetic fields
  • Identify whether different substances are solids, liquids or gases
  • Describe how materials are made up of particles
  • Use the particle model to explain why different materials have different properties.
  • Describe the properties of a substance in its three states.
  • Use ideas about particles to explain the properties of a substance in its three states.
  • Describe solutions using keywords (solvent, solute, solution,dissolve)
  • Use the particle model to explain dissolving
  • Explain the meaning of solubility
  • Explain what saturated solution is
  • Investigate the solubility of different substances in 100g of water by completing a table of results and writing a conclusion of results.
  • Describe the composition of the atmosphere as a mixture of gases
  • Explain what is gas pressure
  • Describe the factors that affect gas pressure
  • Describe how atmospheric pressure changes with height
  • Identify the names for all the ways matter can change state
  • Use the particle model to explain changes of state involving melting and freezing
  • Interpret data about melting points
  • Identify the names for all the ways matter can change state.
  • Use the particle model to explain boiling
  • Describe changes of state involving gases
  • Use the particle model to explain evaporation, condensation and sublimation
  • Use melting point to identify substances
  • Use melting point to check the purity of a substance
  • Use boiling point to identify substances
  • Use boiling and melting point to predict the state of a substance

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Explain the different forms of Scientific writing for different purposes (ATL skill- communication)
  • Write a method of how to plot magnetic field lines using a bar magnet
  • Investigate which materials are magnetic by writing a prediction, completing a table of results and writing a conclusion of results.
  • Interpret data about changes of state
  • Inquiring and designing a practical investigation, Process and evaluate a practical investigation
  • Students undertake the planning and implementation of the assessment, lessons will be provided

Key Concept

Change

Related Concept(s)

Interactions, conditions and patterns

Link to assessment

B and C

Statement of inquiry

Science enables us to manipulate the conditions, interactions and patterns of systems to make the world a better place. External factors such as global warming, change the way systems are arranged in our environment. Governments need to consider the consequences of these factors.

ATLs

Thinking:

  • Interpret data.
  • Apply skills and knowledge in an unfamiliar situation.
  • Use brainstorming and visual diagrams to generate new ideas and inquiries.

Links to prior learning

Properties of materials e.g hardness, conductivity
Know that some materials dissolve in liquids to form a solution
Identify materials as solids, liquids or gases
Know that when heated or cooled they change shape

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Evaluate particle models that explain why different materials have different properties.
  • Explain why different substances boil at different temperatures using particle diagrams and latent heat
  • Use the particle model and latent heat to explain boiling.
  • Explain what occurs during sublimation and condensation using particle models.
  • Explain, using particle models, the differences between evaporation and boiling.
  • Explain why there is a period of constant temperature during melting and freezing.
  • Interpret melting point data to explain the particle movement of different substances at given temperatures.
  • Use ideas about how fast particles are moving to explain the properties of a substance in its three states.
  • Discuss the properties of a range of substances in their three states
  • Use particle diagrams to explain how diffusion occurs and the factors that affect it.
  • Use particle diagrams to explain how gas pressure is created.
  • Explain, using particle diagrams, what happens to gas pressure as the temperature increases.
  • Explain why certain elements are used for given roles, in terms of the properties of the elements.
  • Link the behaviour of atoms within substances to why elements, but not lone atoms, exhibit properties.
  • Calculate the percentage of a given element within a compound & use data provided to calculate formula masses for compounds
  • Use information given to draw conclusions about how the properties of atoms contribute to the properties of elements.
  • Differentiate elements from compounds when given names and properties.
  • Use particle diagrams to explain why a compound has different properties to the elements in it.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Form a hypothesis based on reasoned scientific knowledge/models
  • Decide on observations & measurements to be taken and degree of accuracy
  • Write detailed conclusions; identifying and explain anomalies
  • Critically evaluate designs of investigations

Key Concept

Relationships

Related Concept(s)

Evidence and consequences

Link to assessment

A and D

ATLs

Self-management

  • Organisation skills
  • Select and use technology effectively and productively

Thinking

  • Creative thinking
  • Use brainstorming and mind mapping to generate new ideas and inquiries

Statement of inquiry

Investigating relationships helps to provide evidence to support evolution of species and possible consequences of these adaptations.

Links to prior learning

  • Construct and interpret a variety of food chains, identifying producers, predators and prey.
  • Students should recognise that environments can change and that this can sometimes pose dangers to living things.
  • Identify how animals and plants are adapted to suit their environment in different ways and that adaptation may lead to evolution.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Explain the effect of competition on the individual or the population
  • Explain how adaptations help an organism survive in their environment
  • Explain how organisms are adapted to seasonal changes
  • Explain how competition or long-term environmental change can lead to evolutionary adaptation or extinction
  • Explain how variation gives rise to different species
  • Explain that some variation is affected by both environmental and inherited factors.
  • Explain the causes of continuous and discontinuous variation & represent this variation within a species using the appropriate type of graph
  • Explain how characteristics are inherited through and coded for by genes.
  • Explain the contribution of each team of scientists to the development of the model of DNA
  • Explain how natural selection leads to evolution
  • Explain how scientists know that organisms have changed over time& explain some factors that may have led to extinction
  • Explain the different types of gene bank.
  • Explain the importance of photosynthesis in the food chain & can explain how the plant obtains the reactants for photosynthesis
  • Explain how the structures of the leaf make it well adapted for photosynthesis &can explain the role of chloroplasts in photosynthesis
  • Explain deficiency symptoms in plants & can explain how proteins are made for plant growth
  • Explain how some chemosynthetic organisms form symbiotic relationships & can compare similarities and difference between photosynthesis and chemosynthesis.
  • Explain how the reactants for respiration get into the cells & can explain the process of aerobic respiration
  • Explain the uses of the products from anaerobic respiration & can explain the differences between the two types of respiration
  • Explain the link between food chains and energy & can explain why a food web gives a more accurate representation of feeding relationships than a food chain
  • Explain the interdependence of organisms & can explain why toxic materials have greater effect on top predators in a food chain.
  • Explain why different organisms are needed in an ecosystem & can explain why different organisms within the same ecosystem have different niches

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Form a hypothesis based on reasoned scientific knowledge/models
  • Decide on observations & measurements to be taken and degree of accuracy
  • Write detailed conclusions; identifying and explain anomalies
  • Critically evaluate designs of investigations.

Key Concept

Systems

Related Concept(s)

Function, Interaction and Form

Link to assessment

A, B and C

Statement of inquiry

Investigate how the components of organisms are formed to function and interact together as biological systems and how humans are able to manipulate these systems for their benefit using scientific innovation.

ATLs

  • Lesson 1: Practise focus and concentration; practise observing carefully in order to recognize problems
  • Lesson 2: Use brainstorming and visual diagrams to generate new ideas and inquiries
  • Lesson 3: Draw reasonable conclusions and generalizations; Gather and organize relevant information to formulate an argument; Take effective notes in class
  • Lesson 4: Practise empathy; Listen actively to other perspectives and ideas; Negotiate effectively; Collect and analyse data to identify solutions and make informed decisions
  • Lesson 5: Practise focus and concentration; Make connections between various sources of information; Create references; Gather and organize relevant information to formulate an argument
  • Lesson 6: Practise focus and concentration; practise observing carefully in order to recognize problems; Collect, record and verify data
  • Lesson 7: Process data and report results; Practise focus and concentration;
  • Lesson 8: Make effective summary notes for studying; Organize and depict information logically
  • Lesson 9: Listen actively to other perspectives and ideas; Apply skills and knowledge in unfamiliar situations
  • Lesson 10: Use models and simulations to explore complex systems and issues;
  • Lesson 11: Make effective summary notes for studying
  • Lesson 12-15 Apply existing knowledge to generate new ideas, products or processes; Make effective summary notes for studying; Organise and depict information logically

Links to prior learning

Students will have made use of a number of simple pieces of practical equipment during KS2 and will have good experience of measuring. Experience of data presented in tables will be present although an ability to describe what is shown by data may not be developed. Skills of drawing graphs may be limited to bar charts and again students’ ability to interpret graphical information will not be well developed.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Explain what each part of a microscope does and how it is used
  • Explain the functions of the components of a cell by linking to life processes
  • Explain the similarities and differences between plant & animal cells
  • Explain the process of diffusion
  • Explain the process of diffusion & which substances move into & out of cells
  • Explain what all living organisms are made of
  • Describe examples of specialised animal & plants cells, linking structure to function
  • Explain what a unicellular organism is
  • Describe the structure and function of an amoeba and a euglena
  • Explain how the different tissues in an organ and the different organs in an organ system function together.
  • Explain in detail the hierarchy of organisation in a multicellular organism.
  • Explain how the adaptations of the parts of the gas exchange system help them perform their function
  • Explain how the actions of the ribcage and diaphragm lead to inhaling and exhaling.
  • Explain the similarities and differences between the bell jar and the breathing system.
  • Explain in detail how to measure lung volumes
  • Explain the relationship between the bones and joints in the skeleton.
  • Explain the link between structure and functions in the skeletal system
  • Explain how the parts of a joint allow it to function.
  • Explain the relationship between the forces required to move different masses.
  • Explain how the muscle groups interact with other tissues to cause movement.
  • Explain why it is necessary to have both muscles in an antagonistic pair to cause movement
  • Explain the difference between adolescence and puberty
  • Explain the main changes that take place during puberty
  • Explain how different parts of the male and female reproductive systems are adapted & work together to achieve certain functions
  • Compare the male and female gametes.
  • Explain the sequence of fertilisation and implantation.
  • Describe accurately the sequence of events during gestation & explain in detail how contractions bring about birth
  • Explain the role of the menstrual cycle in reproduction & describe the stages of the menstrual cycle as a timed sequence of events.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Use a microscope to observe a prepared slide and state the magnification, Use the equation M= I/A to work out magnification,
  • Be able to rearrange the equation M = I/A and find each variable
  • Make and record observations and measurements using a range of methods for different investigations
  • Interpret data given to explain the difference in the composition of inhaled and exhaled air
  • Use a pressure model to explain the movement of gases including simple measurements of lung volume
  • Present information (the menstrual cycle) in the form of a scaled timeline or pie chart.

Key Concept

Relationships

Related Concept(s)

Transformation, interaction and movement

Link to assessment

A and D

Links to prior learning

Some objects need to be in contact for a force to act, but magnets don’t
Things fall because of gravity
Identify the effects of air resistance, water resistance and friction

Statement of inquiry

Determining the relationship and interactions between forces help us to explain why objects move.

ATLs

  • Communication skills– Use and interpret a range of discipline – specific terms and symbols e.g equations, units and key words within the unit.
  • Thinking skills – Critical thinking – Draw reasonable conclusions and generalisation e.g Write conclusions from practical work and analyse data

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Explain the difference between contact and non-contact forces
  • Explain which pairs of forces are acting on an object
  • Explain how forces deform objects in a range of situations.
  • Explain how solid surfaces provide a support force, using scientific terminology and bonding.
  • Apply Hooke’s Law to make quantitative predictions with unfamiliar materials.
  • Explain the effect of drag forces and friction in terms of forces.
  • Explain why drag forces and friction slow things down in terms of forces.
  • Apply the effects of forces at a distance to different fields.
  • Explain how the effect of gravity changes moving away from Earth.
  • Explain the difference between balances and unbalances forces.
  • Describe a range of situations that are in equilibrium
  • Explain why the speed or direction of motion of objects can change using force arrows

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Form a hypothesis based on reasoned scientific knowledge/models
  • Decide on observations & measurements to be taken and degree of accuracy
  • Write detailed conclusions; identifying and explain anomalies
  • Critically evaluate designs of investigations

Key Concept

Relationships

Related Concept(s)

Energy, form and movement

Link to assessment

A and D

ATLs

Communication

  • Communication skills
  • Make inferences and draw conclusions

Research

  • Information literacy skills
  • Evaluate and select information sources and digital tools based on their appropriateness to specific tasks

Statement of inquiry

Recognizing the relationship between the movement of energy and its form can help us better understand our world and beyond using scientific innovation.

Links to prior learning

  • Light travels in straight lines and is reflected off of surface.
  • Know the earth spins and moves around the sun
  • Know that the moon moves around the earth

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Use the speed of light to describe distances between astronomical objects.
  • Describe the structure of the Universe in detail, in order of size and of distance away from the Earth.
  • Explain how the properties and features of planets are linked to their place in the Solar System
  • Compare features of different objects in the Solar System
  • Predict the effect of the Earth’s tilt on temperature and day-length.
  • Predict how seasons would be different if there was no tilt.
  • Predict phases of the Moon at a given time
  • Explain how total eclipses are linked to phases of the Moon
  • Explain why it is possible to see an eclipse on some of the planets in the Solar System but not others
  • Calculate the distance travelled by light in a light-year

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Form a hypothesis based on reasoned scientific knowledge/models
  • Decide on observations & measurements to be taken and degree of accuracy
  • Write detailed conclusions; identifying and explain anomalies
  • Critically evaluate designs of investigations

Key Concept

Relationships

Related Concept(s)

Energy and transformation

Link to assessment

A, B and C

ATLs

Thinking

  • Critical thinking
  • Interpret data from scientific investigations
  • Core practical, investigate the strength of an electromagnet

Research

  • Information literacy
  • Present information in a variety of formats and platforms
  • GRASP task, writing a report

Statement of inquiry

As humans exploit an increasing range of energy resources (food and fuel) how do we rely on scientific and technical innovation? We use the interaction of forces to transform energy to create a more efficient and effective society.

Links to prior learning

  • Circuit work in primary school, Magnets attraction and repulsion
  • Gravity from forces in Y7- what is gravity, how does gravity work, examples for how and when gravity works.
  • Gravitational fields from Forces in Y7, Magnetic force
  • Electrostatic force from forces in Y7, Contact vs Non Contact Forces

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Predict how charged objects will interact, explain, in terms of electrons, why something becomes charged & can compare a gravitational field and an electric field
  • Use a model to explain how current flows in a circuit & can predict the current in different circuits
  • Explain the difference between potential difference and current, explain why potential difference is measured in parallel & can predict the effect of changing the rating of a battery or bulb in a circuit
  • Explain the most suitable type of circuit for the domestic ring main & can explain why current and potential difference vary in series and parallel circuits
  • Explain the causes of resistance, explain what factors affect the resistance of a resistor & can compare the effect of resistance in different materials
  • Explain how magnets can be used & can compare magnetic field lines and a magnetic field.
  • Explain how a compass works.
  • Explain how an electromagnet works & can predict the effect of changes on the strength of different electromagnets
  • Apply knowledge about electromagnets to design a circuit & can suggest ways to make a motor turn faster
  • Calculate energy requirements for various situations, considering diet
    and exercise & can suggest different foods needed in various situations, considering diet and exercise
  • Account for energy dissipation during transfers & can compare energy transfers to energy conservation
  • Give an example to show that energy and temperature are different & can explain, in terms of particles, how energy is transferred
  • Give examples of equilibrium
  • Explain in detail the processes involved during heat transfers & can explain why certain materials are good insulators
  • Explain how thermal equilibrium can be established & can explain why some objects radiate more energy
  • Compare the advantages and disadvantages of using renewable and non-renewable energy resources & can explain how a range of resources generate electricity, drawing on scientific concepts
  • Compare the power consumption of different activities & can calculate and compare energy costs in different scenarios
  • Compare work done in different scenarios and by different machines & can explain how conservation of energy applies in one example

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • How to work out resistance using R = V/I
  • Rearrange the resistance equation to find each variable.
  • Form a hypothesis from reasoned scientific knowledge and models
  • Decide on observations and measurements to be taken and degree of accuracy
  • Write detailed conclusions; identify and explain anomalies

Key Concept

Change

Related Concept(s)

Patterns and models

Link to assessment (criterion A and ‘x’)

B and C

ATLs

Communication

  • Thinking skills
  • Written presentation e.g lab report write up of core practical.

Self-management

  • Reflection.
  • Consider content critically e.g reflect on data from experiments to summarise results and make conclusions.

Statement of inquiry

Scientists observe patterns and use them to construct systems that explain how the world works. This enables us to evaluate the relationship between humans and the natural environment in terms of the materials that they use.

Links to prior learning (to be made explicit and tested)

  • The periodic table is separated as metals and non metals.
  • The definition for an element, atoms and compounds.
  • Chemical formula and how to write them out.
  • Reactions between acids and metals and acids and bases.
  • Compare and contrast physical and chemical reactions
  • Convert word equations into formula equations.
  • Construct a formula equation for a reaction without the use of word equation

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Classify properties of metalloids into metallic and non-metallic properties & can predict the properties of an element, given its position on the Periodic Table
  • Explain how the position of an element can be used to suggest properties of elements & can apply patterns shown within groups or periods to unknown elements
  • Describe patterns in the properties of Group 1 elements using data given & can compare predictions with evidence, and from reactions involving Group 1 elements
  • Explain any predictions made about the Group 7 elements
  • Write word equations to represent displacement reactions
  • Link information about Group 0 elements to their properties & can compare the trends in Group 0 with those of Group 1 and Group 7 elements
  • Use formula equations to show what happens when metals react in different acids.
  • Use word and formula equations to explain the test for hydrogen gas.
  • Explain the reactivity of metals according to how they react with oxygen.
  • Construct balanced equations that include state symbols.
  • Can link a metal’s reaction with its place in the reactivity series.
  • Explain predictions made about a metal’s reactivity.
  • Explain why displacement reactions are predicted to occur or not occur.
  • Use particle models and diagrams to represent displacement reactions
  • Explain why metals can be extracted using carbon, using the idea of displacement.
  • Convert amounts of metals within ores from masses to percentages, or vice versa.
  • Distinguish between chemical and physical properties of ceramics.
  • Justify why possible ceramics are identified from data about material properties
  • Explain properties of different polymers.
  • Compare properties of different polymers.
  • Explain composite properties & suggest advantages and disadvantages of composite properties.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Form a hypothesise based on reasoned scientific knowledge/models
  • Decide on observations & measurements to be taken and degree of accuracy
  • Write detailed conclusions; identifying and explain anomalies
  • Critically evaluate designs of investigations. Identify patterns in melting and boiling points from data given. be able to predict properties of an element.
  • Be able to draw bar charts about patterns in groups and periods, as well as density data. Make observations based on chemical reactions and reactivity.

Key Concept

Relationships

Related Concept(s)

Balance, consequences, environment and function.

Link to assessment

A and D

ATLs

Research

  • Access information to be informed and inform others e.g research diseases linked to malnutrition and effects of alcohol, drugs and smoking

Thinking

  • Creative thinking – Apply skills and knowledge in unfamiliar situation e.g use of liver transplants

Statement of inquiry

Relating lifestyle choices to health and wellbeing can help to understand the functions of different body systems, the benefits of a balanced diet and the consequences of poor lifestyle choices.

Links to prior learning

  • Students know about the major food groups.
  • Student know what drugs are and that they can be beneficial or harmful for you (KS2).
  • Students know that the digestive system is an organ system and the organs that are part of it e.g. stomach, small intestine.
  • Students learnt how alcohol and smoking affects the fetus development

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Explain what makes a food a healthy option & can explain how each nutrient contributes to a healthy, balanced diet
  • Explain why testing food for starch, lipids, sugar, and protein is important & can explain the meaning of positive or negative results in terms of the food tests
  • Explain how an unhealthy diet causes health issues & can explain that different people require different amounts of energy, using energy calculations and data to support my explanations
  • Explain why food needs to be digested & can explain how each part of the digestive system works in sequence, including adaptations of the small intestine for its function
  • Explain how enzymes affect the rate of digestion
  • Explain how some bacteria improve health
  • Explain why people take different medicinal and recreational drugs & can explain how recreational drugs can have a negative effect on people’s lifestyles
  • Explain in detail how alcohol affects health and behaviour, detailing its effect on life processes & can explain the importance of providing information about drinking to the general public, not just pregnant women
  • Explain how smoking causes disease & can explain which chemicals in tobacco smoke affect the development of a fetus

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Form a hypothesis based on reasoned scientific knowledge/models
  • Decide on observations & measurements to be taken and degree of accuracy
  • Write detailed conclusions; identifying and explain anomalies
  • Critically evaluate designs of investigations.

Key Concept

Change

Related Concept(s)

Consequences and evidence

Link to assessment

B and C

ATLs

Communication skills

  • Make inferences and draw conclusions

Research skills

  • Information literacy
  • Present information in a variety of formats and platforms

Statement of inquiry

Understanding the change and interactions when mixtures separate allows for the continuous supply of some raw materials for a variety of functions.

Links to prior learning

  • Compare and group materials together, according to whether they are solids, liquids or gases. Observe that some materials change state when they are heated or cooled
  • Physical and chemical changes
  • Compare and group materials together, according to whether they are solids, liquids or gases
  • That some materials will dissolve in liquid to form a solution
  • Use knowledge of solids, liquids and gases to decide how mixtures can be separated (filtering, sieving and evaporating)

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Use particle models to represent mixtures & use particle models to represent mixtures
  • Explain the relationship between solutes, solvents, and solutions & can draw particle diagrams to represent solutions and pure substances
  • Explain why temperature affects the amount of solute dissolved in a solution & can explain what a solubility graph shows
  • Use particle diagrams to illustrate how filtering works & can explain whether or not filtering can be used in given situations
  • Compare evaporation and distillation & can discuss whether evaporation or distillation would be suitable for separating a mixture
  • Explain how chromatography can be used in different scenarios & can consider how chromatography can be used to monitor the progress of reactions

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Form a hypothesise based on reasoned scientific knowledge/models
  • Decide on observations & measurements to be taken and degree of accuracy
  • Write detailed conclusions; identifying and explain anomalies
  • Critically evaluate designs of investigations.

Key Concept

Relationships

Related Concept(s)

Evidence and consequences

Link to assessment

A and D

ATLs

Self-management

  • Organisation skills
  • Select and use technology effectively and productively

Thinking

  • Creative thinking
  • Use brainstorming and mind mapping to generate new ideas and inquiries

Statement of inquiry

Investigating relationships helps to provide evidence to support evolution of species and possible consequences of these adaptations.

Links to prior learning

  • Construct and interpret a variety of food chains, identifying producers, predators and prey.
  • Students should recognise that environments can change and that this can sometimes pose dangers to living things.
  • Identify how animals and plants are adapted to suit their environment in different ways and that adaptation may lead to evolution.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Explain the effect of competition on the individual or the population
  • Explain how adaptations help an organism survive in their environment
  • Explain how organisms are adapted to seasonal changes
  • Explain how competition or long-term environmental change can lead to evolutionary adaptation or extinction
  • Explain how variation gives rise to different species
  • Explain that some variation is affected by both environmental and inherited factors.
  • Explain the causes of continuous and discontinuous variation & represent this variation within a species using the appropriate type of graph
  • Explain how characteristics are inherited through and coded for by genes.
  • Explain the contribution of each team of scientists to the development of the model of DNA
  • Explain how natural selection leads to evolution
  • Explain how scientists know that organisms have changed over time& explain some factors that may have led to extinction
  • Explain the different types of gene bank.
  • Explain the importance of photosynthesis in the food chain & can explain how the plant obtains the reactants for photosynthesis
  • Explain how the structures of the leaf make it well adapted for photosynthesis &can explain the role of chloroplasts in photosynthesis
  • Explain deficiency symptoms in plants & can explain how proteins are made for plant growth
  • Explain how some chemosynthetic organisms form symbiotic relationships & can compare similarities and difference between photosynthesis and chemosynthesis.
  • Explain how the reactants for respiration get into the cells & can explain the process of aerobic respiration
  • Explain the uses of the products from anaerobic respiration & can explain the differences between the two types of respiration
  • Explain the link between food chains and energy & can explain why a food web gives a more accurate representation of feeding relationships than a food chain
  • Explain the interdependence of organisms & can explain why toxic materials have greater effect on top predators in a food chain.
  • Explain why different organisms are needed in an ecosystem & can explain why different organisms within the same ecosystem have different niches

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Form a hypothesis based on reasoned scientific knowledge/models
  • Decide on observations & measurements to be taken and degree of accuracy
  • Write detailed conclusions; identifying and explain anomalies
  • Critically evaluate designs of investigations.

Key Concept

Change

Related Concept(s)

Form, models and transfer

Link to assessment

A

ATLs

Communication

  • Communication skills
  • Organise and depict information logically

Self-management

  • Reflection
  • Consider environmental implications

Statement of inquiry

Landscapes and natural resources are transformed by dynamic systems that are constantly interacting and changing.

Links to prior learning

  • Convection currents in topic of energy.
  • Students have studied in simple terms how fossils formed in topic on renewable energy resources.
  • Recognise that living things have changed over time and that fossils provide information about living things that inhabited Earth millions of years ago.
  • Compare and group together different types of rock on the basis of their appearance and simple physical properties

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Compare the different layers of the Earth in terms of their properties.
  • Describe the composition of the atmosphere in terms of abundance of components.
  • Explain two properties of sedimentary rocks by linking them to the rock structure and formation
  • Give a detailed explanation of the sedimentary rock cycle
  • Discuss examples of rocks that illustrate the different methods of formation of igneous and metamorphic rocks.
  • Link properties of igneous and metamorphic rocks to their methods of formation.
  • Give a detailed description and explanation of a rock’s journey through the rock cycle.
  • Explain changes in the levels of carbon dioxide using stages of the carbon cycle.
  • Use equations to explain processes that exchange carbon dioxide to and from the atmosphere.
  • Use a model to explain why global warming happens & discuss in detail the impacts of global warming, identifying primary and secondary problems.
  • Compare how other materials are recycled with recycling of aluminium.
  • Use data to discuss the relative benefits and drawbacks of recycling materials.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Form a hypothesis based on reasoned scientific knowledge/models
  • Decide on observations & measurements to be taken and degree of accuracy
  • Write detailed conclusions; identifying and explain anomalies
  • Critically evaluate designs of investigations.

Key Concept

Relationships

Related Concept(s)

Transformation and structure

Link to assessment

A, B and C

ATLs

The AtL skills for this unit will be developed explicitly through structured tasks within lessons. Other skills can also be practised where relevant.

  • Research – Information literacy – Present information in a variety of formats and platforms e.g models of states of matter and atomic structure.
  • Thinking skills – Critical thinking – Draw reasonable conclusions and generalisation e.g Write conclusions from practical work and analyse data.

Links to prior learning

  • Unit 1 (Y7) – structure of a plant, animal and bacteria cell, difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic
  • Unit 1 (Y7) – structure and function of sperm, egg cells and ciliated epithelial cells, idea of cell specialisation from Stem cells GRASP Task
  • Unit 1 (Y7) – levels of organisation tissue – organ – organ system – organism, the use of the lego brick analogy,
  • This Unit – Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells and their subcellular structures,
  • This Unit – Specialised cells have been discussed previously in this unit and how they are linked to organ systems in the body,
  • Unit 1 (Y7) – Parts of a microscope, magnification equation.
  • This Unit – Standard form, quantitative units and converting between units
  • Unit 1 (Y7) – Completed this same practical
  • This Unit – parts of the microscope
  • This Unit – Understanding of microscopes
  • All Units in year 7 and 8 – understanding of the practical write up format

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

Identify plant and animal cells as Eukaryotic cells and bacteria cells as prokaryotic cells, Explain how the subcellular structures of cells are related to their functions, Compare and contrast the three types of cells (animal, plant, bacteria), why cells are specialised for a specific function, the link between structure and function of various specialised cells (sperm,egg,muscle, ciliated epithelial, nerve),the sequence of the organisation in a multicellular organism, how the structure of different types of cell relate to their function in a tissue, an organ or organ system, understanding of the scale and the size of a cell, Understand how microscopy techniques have developed over time, the differences between light and electron microscopes.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

Carry out order of magnitude calculations, Use the magnification equation, Use a light microscope to observe, draw and label an onion cell, Write a method including an equipment list, Identify risks associated with the practical, Present the results of the practical.

Key Concept

Relationships

Related Concept(s)

Transformation and structure

Link to assessment

A, B and C

Statement of inquiry

Scientists observe patterns and use models to construct processes that explain how the world works.

ATLs

The AtL skills for this unit will be developed explicitly through structured tasks within lessons. Other skills can also be practised where relevant.

  • Research – Information literacy – Present information in a variety of formats and platforms e.g models of states of matter and atomic structure.
  • Thinking skills – Critical thinking – Draw reasonable conclusions and generalisation e.g Write conclusions from practical work and analyse data.

Links to prior learning

  • Unit 2 (Y7) – States of matter, interconversions, interconversions are physical changes
  • Unit 2 (Y7) – predicting states of matter
  • Unit 2 (Y7) – Atom, element, mixtures and compounds definition, properties of mixtures and compounds, pure substances, sharp melting point, cooling curves
  • This Unit – Specialised cells have been discussed previously in this unit and how they are linked to organ systems in the body
  • Unit 2 (Y7) – structure of the atom, mass and charges of subatomic particles.
  • This Unit – size of an atom
  • This unit – Structure of an atom
  • Unit 2 (Y7) – Chemical symbols, naming compounds, elements can be found in the periodic table, naming compounds and elements within them
  • This unit – Chemical formula, word and symbol equations, counting the number of atoms

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

Arrangement, movement and the relative energy of particles in each of the three states of matter, be able to identify the 6 interconversions and the change in arrangement, movement and energy of particles during these interconversions, Predict the physical state of a substance, the different temperatures at which changes of state occur, know the limitations of the particle theory, what a compound is, what a mixture is, the difference between a pure and impure substance, Describe the states of matter in a heating curve, know whether a substance is pure or impure, know how big an atom is be able to describe the structure of an atom, What is an isotope and be able to give examples, know chemical formula for common elements and compounds.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

Use graphs to identify melting points of pure substances and mixtures, Calculate the number of protons, neutrons and electrons in an atom, Represent the electronic structure of the first twenty elements, Calculate the number of protons, neutrons and electrons in an isotope, Calculate relative atomic mass of an element, Calculate how many atoms are in a compound, Write word and symbol equations, Write formula and balanced chemical equations.

Key Concept

Relationships

Related Concept(s)

Transformation and structure

Link to assessment

A, B and C

ATLs

The AtL skills for this unit will be developed explicitly through structured tasks within lessons. Other skills can also be practised where relevant.

  • Research – Information literacy – Present information in a variety of formats and platforms e.g models of states of matter and atomic structure.
  • Thinking skills – Critical thinking – Draw reasonable conclusions and generalisation e.g Write conclusions from practical work and analyse data.

Statement of inquiry

Scientists observe patterns and use models to construct processes that explain how the world works.

Links to prior learning (to be made explicit and tested)

  • This Unit – States of matter, kinetic theory model
  • This Unit – density, Unit 2 (Y7) – gas pressure
  • This Unit – States of matter. Kinetic Theory Model
  • This Unit – states of matter, kinetic particle theory, density.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

The differences in density between the different states of matter, be able to define density as density = mass/ volume, Investigate the densities of solids and liquids, Make predictions based on scientific knowledge, the pressure of a gas, the effect of changing the temperature of a gas on the velocity of its particles and hence on the pressure, how liquid pressure changes with depth, why some things float and some things sink, Apply ideas of pressure to different situations.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

Calculate pressure, Define density as density = mass/ volume, be able to rearrange equation to find each variable, B/C assessment – Make predictions based on scientific knowledge of densities, complete the practical and collect results – recap density equation in order to correctly draw the table of results, know how to write up a practical investigation

Key Concept

Change

Related Concept(s)

Transformation and consequences

Link to assessment

Criterion D – Grasp task, End of Unit Test: Criterion A

ATLs

The AtL skills for this unit will be developed explicitly through structured tasks within lessons. Other skills can also be practised where relevant.

  • Thinking skills – Creative thinking skills – apply skills and knowledge in unfamiliar situations.
  • Thinking skills – Critical thinking skills – identify trends and forecast possibilities

Statement of inquiry

Scientific and technological advances enable societies to use, control and transform the function of organisms, molecules and machines.

Links to prior learning

  • Unit 8 (Y8) – looked at the effects of diet, smoking and alcohol on the body,
  • Unit 8 (Y8) – deficiency diseases, the effect of nutrition on health, the effect of alcohol on health
  • Unit 1 (Y7) – Contraception
  • Unit 10 (Y8) – photosynthesis

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • State what health is
  • Describe the difference between communicable and non-communicable diseases
  • Explain how stress, diet and life situations can affect health, and the presence of one disease can lead to a higher susceptibility to another disease
  • Explain the effect of lifestyle factors on the incidence of non-communicable diseases
  • State examples of non-communicable diseases
  • Use data to understand the diseases in relation to the risk factors
  • Describe what is cardiovascular disease
  • Describe the causes of cardiovascular disease
  • Recall treatments for cardiovascular disease and evaluate the advantages and disadvantages
  • Describe what is a pathogen
  • Explain how diseases are spread in animals and plants
  • Explain how the spread of diseases can be reduced or prevented
  • Identify examples of communicable diseases
  • Explain how the spread of diseases can be reduced and prevented

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Maths skills: Use scatter diagrams to identify a correlation between two variables in terms of risk factors
    • Example: Include graph data to show correlation between life situations and health e.g. correlation between income and health. Discuss that there could be many causes for this correlation and that it is not straight forward.
  • Students need to be able look at graphical data to understand correlation and cause – if there is a correlation between a particular factor and an outcome, it does not mean that the factor necessarily causes the outcome.
  • Maths skills;
    • Understand the principles of sampling, including epidemiological data and in terms of risk factors
    • Translate disease incidence information between graphical and numerical forms
    • Interpret and extract information from frequency tables and diagrams, bar charts and histograms in terms of risk factors

Key Concept

Change

Related Concept(s)

Transformation and consequences

Link to assessment

Criterion D – Grasp task, End of Unit test: Criterion A

ATLs

The AtL skills for this unit will be developed explicitly through structured tasks within lessons. Other skills can also be practised where relevant.

  • Thinking skills – Creative thinking skills – apply skills and knowledge in unfamiliar situations.
  • Thinking skills – Critical thinking skills – identify trends and forecast possibilities

Statement of inquiry

Scientific and technological advances enable societies to use, control and transform the function of organisms, molecules and machines.

Links to prior learning

  • Unit 2 (Y7) – structure of the atom, basics of the structure of the periodic table, chemical formulae
  • Unit 7 (Y8) – structure of the periodic table, metals and non-metals
  • Unit 9a – atomic structure, electronic structure, isotopes
  • Unit 9A – structure of an atom, calculating numbers of protons, neutrons and electrons, electronic configuration

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Describe how Mendeleev used the table to predict the existence and properties of unknown elements
  • Explain how Mendeleev arranged the elements in the periodic table
  • Describe the arrangement of the periodic table
  • Define an Ion
  • Calculate the number of protons, neutrons and electrons in an ion
  • Work out the charges on ions
  • (HT only) write balanced half equations
  • Explain the use of the ending -ide and -ate in the names of compounds
  • Deduce the formula of ionic compounds
  • Describe the limitations of representing ionic compounds using different models
  • Recall that metallic bonding occurs in metallic elements and alloys
  • Explain metallic bonding

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Students need to be able to work out the charge on the ions of metals and non-metals from the group number of the element and should be able to draw the electronic configuration and write the electronic configuration of an ion
  • Students need to be able to calculate the number of protons, neutrons and electrons in simple ions given the atomic and mass number
  • Students need to be able to write balanced half equations
  • Students need to be able to name different ionic compounds
  • Students should to be able to recognise that a compound is ionic from a diagram and work out the ionic formula of the ionic compound

Key Concept

Change

Related Concept(s)

Transformation and consequences

Link to assessment

End of Unit test: Criterion A

ATLs

The AtL skills for this unit will be developed explicitly through structured tasks within lessons. Other skills can also be practised where relevant.

  • Thinking skills – Creative thinking skills – apply skills and knowledge in unfamiliar situations.
  • Thinking skills – Critical thinking skills – identify trends and forecast possibilities

Statement of inquiry

Scientific and technological advances enable societies to use, control and transform the function of organisms, molecules and machines.

Links to prior learning

  • Unit 3 (Y7) – Contact and non-contact forces,
  • Unit 6 (Y8) – Magnetism
  • Unit 3 (Y7) – Mass and weight

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Explain the difference between scalar and vector quantities
  • Recall examples of scalar and vector quantities
  • Explain displacement
  • Recall and use the equation for speed
  • Recall some typical speeds
  • Describe how you would determine the speed of an object in a laboratory
  • Draw distance/ time graphs
  • Analyse distance/ time graphs
  • Recall and use the equation for acceleration
  • Define decelerating
  • Describe contact and non-contact forces
  • Use diagrams to represent interactions between forces
  • Define resultant forces
  • Define weight
  • Describe the difference between mass and weight
  • Recall and use the equation for weight

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Use the speed equation simply, then rearrange it, then convert units using it simply and build up to using it in exam questions
  • Students need to be aware of how the equipment can be used to determine the speed of objects using light gates. This is more accurate than using a stopwatch.
  • Students need to be able to calculate the speed using a gradient e.g. change in distance/ change in time
  • Students need to be able to draw a distance-time graph from measurements and data
  • Students need to be able to use the W= mg equation

Key Concept

Relationships

Related Concept(s)

Form and function

Link to assessment

End of Unit test: Criterion A, B and C Investigation

ATLs

The AtL skills for this unit will be developed explicitly through structured tasks within lessons. Other skills can also be practised where relevant.

  • Communication – Communication skills – organise and depict information logically.
  • Self-management – Organisation skills – select and use technology effectively and productively.

Statement of inquiry

Scientific and technological advances enable societies to use, control and transform the function of organisms, molecules and machines.

Links to prior learning

  • Unit 1 (Y7) – Cells and organisation

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Identify the leaf, stem and roots as plant organs
  • State the equation for photosynthesis
  • Explain how the structures of the xylem, phloem and root hair cells are adapted to their function
  • Identify different plant tissues
  • Explain how the plant tissues are adapted to their functions
  • Observe and draw a transverse section of a leaf
  • Describe how sucrose is transported around the plant by translocation
  • Explain how water and mineral ions are transported through the plant by transpiration
  • Explain the effect of environmental factors on the rate of water uptake by a plant
  • Describe the similarities and differences between xylem and phloem
  • Explain how water and sucrose are transported through the plant
  • Explain how the cells, tissues and organs of the plant work together
  • Explain how the transport systems of the plant work together
  • Understand how plants are adapted to their environment
  • Identify the sensory receptors
  • Describe the structure and function of sensory, motor and relay neurones
  • Explain the structure and function of the nervous system
  • Explain the structure and function of a reflex arc
  • Understand why reflex actions are important
  • Investigate human reaction times

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Investigate the distribution of stomata and guard cells
  • Measure the rate of transpiration by the uptake of water
  • Demonstrate an understanding of rate calculations for transpiration
  • Investigate human reaction times

Key Concept

Relationships

Related Concept(s)

Form and function

Link to assessment

End of Unit test: Criterion A

Statement of inquiry

Scientific and technological advances enable societies to use, control and transform the function of organisms, molecules and machines.

ATLs

The AtL skills for this unit will be developed explicitly through structured tasks within lessons. Other skills can also be practised where relevant.

  • Communication – communication skills – organise and depict information logically.
  • Self-management – organisation skills – select and use technology effectively and productively.

Links to prior learning

  • Unit 9A – Structure of an atom and Electronic Configuration
  • Unit 2 (Y7) – structure of the atom, basics of the structure of the periodic table, chemical formulae
  • Unit 7 (Y8) – structure of the periodic table, metals and non-metals, group 1
  • Unit 9A – atomic structure, electronic structure, writing word equations, balanced equations
  • Unit 2 (Y7) – structure of the atom, basics of the structure of the periodic table, chemical formulae
  • Unit 7 (Y8) – structure of the periodic table, metals and non-metals, group 7
  • Unit 9A – atomic structure, electronic structure, writing word equations, balanced equations
  • Unit 7 (Y8) – group 7, displacement reactions
  • Unit 7 (Y8) – group 0, uses of group 0

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Recall that covalent bonding results in the formation of molecules
  • Explain how the reactions of elements are related to the arrangement of electrons and their atomic number
  • Explain how a covalent bond is formed
  • Describe the limitations of the different models used to represent covalent bonding
  • Recall the properties of Alkali metals
  • Describe the reactions of the alkali metals
  • Describe and explain the pattern of reactivity of the alkali metals
  • Recall the colours and physical states of the group 7 elements
  • Describe the pattern in the physical properties of the halogens
  • Describe the reactions of the halogens
  • Describe the relative reactivity of the halogens as shown by their displacement reactions
  • Describe the chemical test for chlorine
  • Compare the reactivity of groups 1 and 7
  • Compare how the electron configuration affects the groups reactivity
  • Describe the pattern in the physical properties of the noble gases
  • Explain why the noble gases are chemically inert
  • Link the properties of the noble gases to their uses

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Use the pattern of reactivity to predict the outcomes of reactions of other halogens
  • Interpret models to identify molecular formula and structural formula of a molecule

Key Concept

Relationships

Related Concept(s)

Form and function

Link to assessment

End of Unit test: Criterion A

Statement of inquiry

Scientific and technological advances enable societies to use, control and transform the function of organisms, molecules and machines.

ATLs

The AtL skills for this unit will be developed explicitly through structured tasks within lessons. Other skills can also be practised where relevant.

  • Communication – communication skills – organise and depict information logically.
  • Self-management – organisation skills – select and use technology effectively and productively.

Links to prior learning

  • Unit 6 (Y8) – Energy stores, law of energy conservation
  • Unit 6 (Y8) – Energy resources, non-renewable and renewable energy, nuclear power
  • Unit 6 (Y8) – Energy resources, non-renewable and renewable energy, nuclear power
  • Unit 6 (Y8) – Work done calculation
  • Unit 6 (Y8) – Power calculation

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Identify the energy stores and transfers
  • Analyse the changes involved in the way energy is stored
  • Explain what is meant by conservation of energy
  • Recall and use the equations for efficiency
  • Describe ways to increase the efficiency of an intended energy transfer
  • Explain ways of reducing unwanted energy transfers
  • Describe the main energy sources available
  • Distinguish between non-renewable and renewable energy sources
  • Compare the different energy resources
  • Explain patterns and trends in the use of energy resources
  • Consider the environmental issues that surround the different energy resources
  • Discuss the environmental, political, social, ethical and economic considerations of using different energy resources
  • Define work done
  • Recall and use the equation for work done
  • Define power using examples

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Draw and interpret diagrams to represent energy transfers
  • Use diagrams to explain the conservation of energy
  • Use the equations for efficiency
  • Use the equation for work done
  • Recall and use the equation for power

Key Concept

Systems

Related Concept(s)

Environment and interaction

Link to assessment

End of Unit test: Criterion A

Statement of inquiry

Models can represent the structural and functional relationships within cells, compounds and energy forms

ATLs

The AtL skills for this unit will be developed explicitly through structured tasks within lessons. Other skills can also be practised where relevant.

  • Self-management – Reflection – Consider content critically.
  • Research – Media literacy – Seek a range of perspectives from multiple and varied sources.

Links to prior learning

  • Unit 9A – Pathogens and communicable and non-communicable diseases
  • Unit 9A – Pathogens, This Unit – the immune response
  • Unit 9A and 9D – Pathogens, immune response, vaccinations
  • Unit 10 (Y8) – Adaptations and ecosystems

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Describe the physical and chemical barriers
  • Describe the role of white blood cells
  • Explain the role of the immune system
  • Explain what a vaccination is
  • Explain the use of antibiotics and other medicines
  • Explain why antibiotics can only be used to treat bacterial infections
  • Describe the process of developing new medicines
  • Explain the stages of making a medicine
  • Apply knowledge of the immune response
  • Describe the different levels of organisation within an ecosystem
  • Understand feeding relationships within an ecosystem
  • Define key terms for this topic
  • Define abiotic and biotic factors
  • Explain how a change in abiotic and biotic factors affect communities
  • Explain how organisms are adapted to live in their natural environments
  • Describe how the survival of some organisms are dependent on other species
  • Describe a quadrat and how it is used
  • Describe a belt transect and how it is used
  • Explain why we sample ecosystems

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Measure the abundance and distribution of a species on the school field
  • Display your results in an appropriate table
  • Calculate the mean, mode and median for your data
  • Display your results in a graph
  • Analyse your results
  • Anaylse and interpret data in relation to abiotic and biotic factors

Key Concept

Systems

Related Concept(s)

Environment and interaction

Link to assessment

End of Unit test: Criterion A

Statement of inquiry

Models can represent the structural and functional relationships within cells, compounds and energy forms

ATLs

The AtL skills for this unit will be developed explicitly through structured tasks within lessons. Other skills can also be practised where relevant.

  • Self-management – Reflection – Consider content critically.
  • Research – Media literacy – Seek a range of perspectives from multiple and varied sources.

Links to prior learning

  • Unit 9A – Pathogens and communicable and non-communicable diseases
  • Unit 9A – Pathogens, This Unit – the immune response
  • Unit 9A and 9D – Pathogens, immune response, vaccinations
  • Unit 10 (Y8) – Adaptations and ecosystems

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Describe the composition of the Earth’s early atmosphere
  • Recall the gases that are released by volcanic activity
  • Explain the role of condensation forming oceans
  • Describe the composition of today’s atmosphere
  • Explain how the levels of carbon dioxide altered
  • Explain the formation of limestone, coal, crude oil and natural gas
  • Describe the test for hydrogen
  • Describe the test for oxygen
  • Describe the test for carbon dioxide
  • Describe the test for chlorine

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • The test for hydrogen gas
  • The test for oxygen gas;
  • The test for carbon dioxide gas;

Key Concept

Systems

Related Concept(s)

Environment and interaction

Link to assessment

End of Unit test: Criterion A

Statement of inquiry

Models can represent the structural and functional relationships within cells, compounds and energy forms

ATLs

The AtL skills for this unit will be developed explicitly through structured tasks within lessons. Other skills can also be practised where relevant.

  • Self-management – Reflection – Consider content critically.
  • Research – Media literacy – Seek a range of perspectives from multiple and varied sources.

Links to prior learning (to be made explicit and tested)

  • Unit 9B – Scalers and vectors and resultant forces
  • Unit 3 (Y7) – Forces
  • Unit 9B – Speed and velocity, Unit 3 (Y7) – Forces
  • Unit 9B – Acceleration
  • Unit 9B – Speeds and Acceleration
  • Unit 3 (Y7) – forces
  • Unit 9B – scalar and vector quantities, speed and acceleration
  • Unit 3 (Y7) – Forces, Hooke’s law, elastic limit
  • Unit 3 (Y7) – Hooke’s Law practical

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Recall Newton’s first law
  • Explain what happens to the motion of an object when the forces are balanced/ when there is a resultant force
  • (HT) Describe inertia
  • Explain terminal velocity
  • Recall Newton’s second law
  • Recall and apply the equation for resultant force
  • (HT) Explain inertial mass
  • Recall Newton’s third law
  • Apply Newton’s third law to examples of equilibrium situations
  • Explain the motion in a circle
  • Explain what is required for motion in a circle to occur
  • Describe how forces cause objects to change shape
  • Describe the difference between elastic and inelastic distortion
  • Recall and use the equation for linear elastic distortion
  • Understand how a spring works

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Investigate the relationship between force, mass and acceleration by varying the masses added to trolleys
  • Use the equation that links initial and final velocity with distance travelled
  • Estimate the magnitudes of everyday accelerations
  • Draw velocity-time graphs from measurements
  • Analyse velocity-time graphs
  • Use the equation for linear elastic distortion
  • Use the equation to calculate the work done in stretching a spring
  • Calculate relevant values of stored energy and energy transfers
  • Investigate the relationship between force, extension and work done extending a spring

Key Concept

Patterns

Related Concept(s)

Environment and interaction

Link to assessment

End of Unit test: Criterion A

Statement of inquiry

Models can represent the structural and functional relationships within cells, compounds and energy forms

ATLs

The AtL skills for this unit will be developed explicitly through structured tasks within lessons. Other skills can also be practised where relevant.

  • Social – Looking at the impact of sceince on the world

Links to prior learning (to be made explicit and tested)

  • Unit 9A – Structure of an atom and Electronic Configuration
  • Unit 2 (Y7) – structure of the atom, basics of the structure of the periodic table, chemical formulae
  • Unit 7 (Y8) – structure of the periodic table, metals and non-metals, group 1
  • Unit 9a – atomic structure, electronic structure, writing word equations, balanced equations
  • Unit 2 (Y7) – structure of the atom, basics of the structure of the periodic table, chemical formulae
  • Unit 7 (Y8) – structure of the periodic table, metals and non-metals, group 7
  • Unit 9a – atomic structure, electronic structure, writing word equations, balanced equations
  • Unit 7 (Y8) – group 7, displacement reactions
  • Unit 7 (Y8) – group 0, uses of group 0

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Recall that covalent bonding results in the formation of molecules
  • Explain how the reactions of elements are related to the arrangement of electrons and their atomic number
  • Explain how a covalent bond is formed
  • Describe the limitations of the different models used to represent covalent bonding
  • Recall the properties of Alkali metals
  • Describe the reactions of the alkali metals
  • Describe and explain the pattern of reactivity of the alkali metals
  • Recall the colours and physical states of the group 7 elements
  • Describe the pattern in the physical properties of the halogens
  • Describe the reactions of the halogens
  • Describe the relative reactivity of the halogens as shown by their displacement reactions
  • Describe the chemical test for chlorine
  • Compare the reactivity of groups 1 and 7
  • Compare how the electron configuration affects the groups reactivity
  • Describe the pattern in the physical properties of the noble gases
  • Explain why the noble gases are chemically inert
  • Link the properties of the noble gases to their uses

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Use the pattern of reactivity to predict the outcomes of reactions of other halogens
  • Interpret models to identify molecular formula and structural formula of a molecule

Key Concept

Patterns

Related Concept(s)

Environment and interaction

Link to assessment

End of Unit test: Criterion A

Statement of inquiry

Models can represent the structural and functional relationships within cells, compounds and energy forms

ATLs

The AtL skills for this unit will be developed explicitly through structured tasks within lessons. Other skills can also be practised where relevant.

  • Social – Looking at the impact of sceince on the world

Links to prior learning

  • Unit 6 (Y8) – Energy stores, law of energy conservation
  • Unit 6 (Y8) – energy resources, non-renewable and renewable energy, nuclear power
  • Unit 6 (Y8) – energy resources, non-renewable and renewable energy, nuclear power
  • Unit 6 (Y8) – work done calculation
  • Unit 6 (Y8) – power calculation

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Identify the energy stores and transfers
  • Analyse the changes involved in the way energy is stored
  • Explain what is meant by conservation of energy
  • Recall and use the equations for efficiency
  • Describe ways to increase the efficiency of an intended energy transfer
  • Explain ways of reducing unwanted energy transfers
  • Describe the main energy sources available
  • Distinguish between non-renewable and renewable energy sources
  • Compare the different energy resources
  • Explain patterns and trends in the use of energy resources
  • Consider the environmental issues that surround the different energy resources
  • Discuss the environmental, political, social, ethical and economic considerations of using different energy resources
  • Define work done
  • Recall and use the equation for work done
  • Define power using examples

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Draw and interpret diagrams to represent energy transfers
  • Use diagrams to explain the conservation of energy
  • Use the equations for efficiency
  • Use the equation for work done
  • Recall and use the equation for power

Key Concept

Patterns

Related Concept(s)

Environment and interaction

Link to assessment (criterion A and ‘x’)

End of Unit test: Criterion A

Statement of inquiry

Models can represent the structural and functional relationships within cells, compounds and energy forms

ATLs

The AtL skills for this unit will be developed explicitly through structured tasks within lessons. Other skills can also be practised where relevant.

  • Looking at the impact of Science on the world.

Links to prior learning (to be made explicit and tested)

  • Unit 9A – pathogens and communicable and non-communicable diseases
  • Unit 9A – Pathogens, This Unit – the immune response
  • Unit 9A and 9D – pathogens, immune response, vaccinations
  • Unit 10 (Y8) – Adaptations and ecosystems

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Describe the physical and chemical barriers
  • Describe the role of white blood cells
  • Explain the role of the immune system
  • Explain what a vaccination is
  • Explain the use of antibiotics and other medicines
  • Explain why antibiotics can only be used to treat bacterial infections
  • Describe the process of developing new medicines
  • Explain the stages of making a medicine
  • Apply knowledge of the immune response
  • Describe the different levels of organisation within an ecosystem
  • Understand feeding relationships within an ecosystem
  • Define key terms for this topic
  • Define abiotic and biotic factors
  • Explain how a change in abiotic and biotic factors affect communities
  • Explain how organisms are adapted to live in their natural environments
  • Describe how the survival of some organisms are dependent on other species
  • Describe a quadrat and how it is used
  • Describe a belt transect and how it is used
  • Explain why we sample ecosystems

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Measure the abundance and distribution of a species on the school field
  • Display your results in an appropriate table
  • Calculate the mean, mode and median for your data
  • Display your results in a graph
  • Analyse your results
  • Analyse and interpret data in relation to abiotic and biotic factors

Key Concept

Change

Related Concept(s)

Environment and interaction

Link to assessment

End of Unit test: Criterion A

Statement of inquiry

Scientific and technological advances cater to the demands of an expanding global population in response to the relationship between humans and the natural environment.

ATLs

The AtL skills for this unit will be developed explicitly through structured tasks within lessons. Other skills can also be practised where relevant.

  • Research – Interpreting Data

Links to prior learning

  • Unit 9A – pathogens and communicable and non-communicable diseases
  • Unit 9A – Pathogens, This Unit – the immune response
  • Unit 9A and 9D – pathogens, immune response, vaccinations
  • Unit 10 (Y8) – Adaptations and ecosystems

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Describe the composition of the Earth’s early atmosphere
  • Recall the gases that are released by volcanic activity
  • Explain the role of condensation forming oceans
  • Describe the composition of today’s atmosphere
  • Explain how the levels of carbon dioxide altered
  • Explain the formation of limestone, coal, crude oil and natural gas
  • Describe the test for hydrogen
  • Describe the test for oxygen
  • Describe the test for carbon dioxide
  • Describe the test for chlorine

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • The test for hydrogen gas
  • The test for oxygen gas;
  • The test for carbon dioxide gas;

Key Concept

Change

Related Concept(s)

Environment and interaction

Link to assessment

End of Unit test: Criterion A

Statement of inquiry

Scientific and technological advances cater to the demands of an expanding global population in response to the relationship between humans and the natural environment.

ATLs

The AtL skills for this unit will be developed explicitly through structured tasks within lessons. Other skills can also be practised where relevant.

  • Research – Interpreting Data

Links to prior learning

  • Unit 9B – Scalers and vectors and resultant forces
  • Unit 3 (Y7) – Forces
  • Unit 9B – Speed and velocity, Unit 3 (Y7) – Forces
  • Unit 9B – Acceleration
  • Unit 9B – Speeds and Acceleration
  • Unit 3 (Y7) – forces
  • Unit 9B – scalar and vector quantities, speed and acceleration
  • Unit 3 (Y7) – Forces, Hooke’s law, elastic limit
  • Unit 3 (Y7) – Hooke’s Law practical

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Recall Newton’s first law
  • Explain what happens to the motion of an object when the forces are balanced/ when there is a resultant force
  • (HT) Describe inertia
  • Explain terminal velocity
  • Recall Newton’s second law
  • Recall and apply the equation for resultant force
  • (HT) Explain inertial mass
  • Recall Newton’s third law
  • Apply Newton’s third law to examples of equilibrium situations
  • Explain the motion in a circle
  • Explain what is required for motion in a circle to occur
  • Describe how forces cause objects to change shape
  • Describe the difference between elastic and inelastic distortion
  • Recall and use the equation for linear elastic distortion
  • Understand how a spring works
  • Describe a quadrat and how it is used
  • Describe a belt transect and how it is used
  • Explain why we sample ecosystems

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Investigate the relationship between force, mass and acceleration by varying the masses added to trolleys
  • Use the equation that links initial and final velocity with distance travelled
  • Estimate the magnitudes of everyday accelerations
  • Draw velocity-time graphs from measurements
  • Analyse velocity-time graphs
  • Use the equation for linear elastic distortion
  • Use the equation to calculate the work done in stretching a spring
  • Calculate relevant values of stored energy and energy transfers
  • Investigate the relationship between force, extension and work done extending a spring

Click on the links below to view the videos and resources for the extension activities.

Module 1

Module 2

The Periodic Table

The Periodic Table: Crash Course Chemistry #4

Separating Mixtures

https://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/guides/zb2f3k7/revision/2

Conservation of Masses

https://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/topics/zypsgk7/articles/zxh7jsg

Watch
Richard Feynman, USA, Non-fiction
This lecture series covers everything from Newtonian mechanics, to electromagnetism, and quantum mechanics.

Modules 3 & 4

The Periodic Table

The Periodic Table: Crash Course Chemistry #4

Separating Mixtures

https://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/guides/zb2f3k7/revision/2

Conservation of Masses

https://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/topics/zypsgk7/articles/zxh7jsg

Watch
Richard Feynman, USA, Non-fiction
This lecture series covers everything from Newtonian mechanics, to electromagnetism, and quantum mechanics.

The Power of the Sun

How does the sun produce energy?

Unicellular and multicellular organisms

Microscopes

Organisation of multicellular organisms

Reproductive system and the menstrual cycle

Structure of the digestive system

Click on the links below to view the videos and resources for the extension activities.

Module 1

Module 2

Modules 3 & 4

Acids and alkalis

The Digestive System

Bacteria and digestion

Gestation and birth

Pollination and fertilisation

The effects of alcohol on the body

back to ks4 subjects

ks4 combined science

link to specification

Building Blocks

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Describe the arrangement of the particles in a solid, liquid, and gas.
  • Explain the behaviour of a material in terms of the arrangement of particles within it.
  • Describe the changes in behaviour of the particles in a material during changes of state.
  • Explain why some materials will float on water.
  • Calculate the density of materials.
  • Measure the density of a solid and a liquid.
  • Describe the behaviour of particles in a gas as the gas is heated.
  • Outline Brownian motion and how this provides evidence for the particle nature of matter.
  • Describe the relationship between an increase in the temperature of a fixed volume of a gas and the increase in pressure of the gas.
  • State that the melting and boiling points of a pure substance are fixed.
  • Use the term ‘latent heat’ to describe the energy gained by a substance during heating for which there is no change in temperature.
  • Find the melting or boiling point of a substance by using a graphical technique.
  • Describe how the internal energy of an object can be increased by heating.
  • Describe how the behaviour of particles changes as the energy of a system increases.
  • Describe the energy changes by heating between objects within the same system.
  • Describe the effects of changing the factors involved in the equation.
  • Calculate the energy required to change the temperature of an object.
  • Measure the specific heat capacity of a material and find a mean value.
  • Describe the changes in particle bonding during changes of state.
  • Calculate the latent heat of fusion and latent heat of vaporisation for a substance.
  • Measure the latent heat of fusion for water.
  • Describe the difference between pure substances, impure substances, and formulations.
  • Explain how melting point and boiling point data can be used to determine the purity of a substance.
  • State uses of formulations.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Use appropriate apparatus to make and record the measurements needed to determine the densities of regular and irregular solid objects and liquids.
  • Volume should be determined from the dimensions of regularly shaped objects, and by a displacement technique for irregularly shaped objects.
  • Dimensions to be measured using appropriate apparatus such as a ruler, micrometre or Vernier callipers.
  • Use and rearrange the density equation.
  • Use and rearrange the equation ∆ E = m c ∆ θ
  • Use and rearrange the equation E = m L
  • Use melting point and boiling point data to distinguish pure from impure substances.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Justify why the model of the atom has changed over time.
  • Evaluate the current model of an atom.
  • Describe isotopes using the atomic model.
  • Explain why ions have a charge.
  • Use atomic number and mass numbers of familiar ions to determine the number of each subatomic particle.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Recognise and convert standard form.
  • Calculate the number of neutrons in an atom from the mass number and atomic (proton) number.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Describe how the elements are arranged in groups and periods in the periodic table.
  • Explain why the periodic table was a breakthrough in how to order elements.
  • Describe how the electronic structure of metals and non-metals are different.
  • Explain in terms of electronic structure how the elements are arranged in the periodic table.
  • Explain why the noble gases are unreactive and the trend in their boiling
  • Recognise trends in supplied data.
  • Explain why the elements in Group 1 react similarly and why the first three elements float on water.
  • Describe how you can show that hydrogen and metal hydroxides are made when Group 1 metals react with water.
  • Recognise trends in supplied data.
  • Explain why the elements in Group 7 react similarly.
  • Explain how to complete a halogen displacement reaction and explain what happens in the reaction.
  • Describe how the electronic structure of metals and non-metals are different.
  • Explain in terms of electronic structure how the elements are arranged in the periodic table.
  • Explain why the noble gases are unreactive and the trend in their boiling

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Explain how testing a prediction can support or refute a new scientific idea.
  • Visualise and represent 2D and 3D forms including two dimensional representations of 3D objects.
  • Draw electronic structures of atoms

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Describe atoms using the atomic model.
  • Explain why atoms have no overall charge.
  • Use atomic number and mass numbers of familiar atoms to determine the number of each subatomic particle.
  • Use the periodic table to find the relative atomic mass of all elements.
  • Calculate the relative formula mass for unfamiliar compounds when the formula is given.
  • (H) State the units for the amount of substance.
  • Explain why chemical equations must be balanced.
  • Calculate the relative formula mass for one substance when the relative formula masses are given for all the other substances in a balanced symbol equation.
  • Explain why chemical equations must be balanced.
  • Identify the limiting reactant in a chemical reaction.
  • Explain why chemical equations must be balanced.
  • Identify the limiting reactant in a chemical reaction.
  • (H) Explain how concentration of a solution can be changed.
  • Calculate the mass of solute (in g) in a solution when given the concentration in g/dm3 and volume in dm3 or cm3.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Use the periodic table to find information about elements
  • Calculate the percentage by mass of an elements in a compound
  • Substitute numerical values into algebraic equations using appropriate units for physical quantities.
  • Convert moles into whole number ratios
  • Calculate the mass of solute in a given volume of solution of known concentration in terms of mass per given volume of solution

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Compare and contrast the magnification and resolution obtained by using light and electron microscopes.
  • Justify the use of an electron microscope.
  • Rearrange the magnification formula and measure the size of cells.
  • Describe the functions of the parts of cells.
  • Compare plant and animal cells.
  • Use a microscope to study plant and algal cells.
  • Predict which way substances will move across a cell membrane.
  • Explain why surface area affects the rate of diffusion.
  • Write a hypothesis using scientific knowledge.
  • State the differences between osmosis and diffusion.
  • Use ideas about osmosis to explain why maintaining constant internal conditions in living organisms is important.
  • Write a prediction using scientific knowledge of osmosis.
  • Explain why active transport is important for living organisms.
  • Explain the differences between diffusion, osmosis, and active transport.
  • Suggest some limitations of/improvements to a representational model that shows active transport.
  • Describe differences between embryonic and adult stem cells.
  • Explain why plant clones are produced in agriculture.
  • Describe how stem cells can be used to treat medical conditions.
  • Explain why chromosomes in body cells are normally found in pairs.
  • Describe situations where mitosis is occurring.
  • Use the key words to describe the process of mitosis.
  • Describe the processes of meiosis and mitosis.
  • Explain how meiosis halves the number of chromosomes in gametes and fertilisation restores the full number.
  • Solve simple probability questions.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Use prefixes centi, milli, micro and nano.
  • Use and rearrange the equation magnification = size of image size of real object.
  • Use estimations and explain when they should be used to judge the relative size or area of subcellular structures.
  • Recognise, draw and interpret diagrams that model diffusion.
  • Calculate and compare surface area to volume ratios.
  • Calculate percentage gain and loss of mass of plant tissue.
  • Plot, draw and interpret appropriate graphs of concentration v the change in mass.
  • Recognise, draw and interpret diagrams that model osmosis.
  • Compare active transport to diffusion and osmosis.
  • Evaluate the practical risks and benefits, as well as social and ethical issues, of the use of stem cells in medical research and treatments.
  • Compare mitosis to meiosis.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Compare transverse and longitudinal waves in terms of direction of vibration and propagation.
  • Compare electromagnetic and mechanical waves in terms of the need for a medium.
  • Outline the derivation of the wave speed equation.
  • Calculate the period of a wave from its frequency.
  • Calculate the wave speed from the frequency and wavelength.
  • (HT) Know that when radio waves are absorbed they may create an alternating current with the same frequency as the radio wave itself, so radio waves can themselves induce oscillations in an electrical circuit.
  • (HT) Describe refraction at a boundary in terms of wavefronts.
  • (HT) Describe refraction including the reflected rays.
  • (HT) Explain partial absorption as a decrease in the amplitude of a wave and therefore the energy carried.
  • Describe how a range of electromagnetic waves are used in a variety of scenarios.
  • (HT) Explain why a particular wave is suited to its application.
  • Plan an investigation into the rate of cooling of infrared radiation.
  • Describe the penetrating powers of gamma rays, X-rays, and ultraviolet rays.
  • Compare X-rays and gamma radiation in terms of their origin.
  • Describe the ionisation of atoms in simple terms.
  • Describe the penetrating powers of gamma rays, X-rays, and ultraviolet rays.
  • Compare X-rays and gamma radiation in terms of their origin.
  • Describe the ionisation of atoms in simple terms.
  • Describe the operation of an X-ray machine.
  • Explain why contrast media can be used during X-rays.
  • Describe the factors that affect the radiation doses received by people.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Use and rearrange the equation period = 1/frequency
  • Use and rearrange the equation wave speed = frequency × wavelength
  • Compare the properties of different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum.
  • Convert 1000 millisieverts (mSv) = 1 sievert (Sv)
  • Compare the properties and uses of different electromagnetic waves
  • Draw conclusions from given data about the risks and consequences of exposure to radiation.

Transport over larger distances

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Describe cellular respiration as an exothermic reaction which is continuously occurring in living cells. The energy transferred supplies all the energy needed for living processes. Respiration in cells can take place aerobically (using oxygen) or anaerobically (without oxygen), to transfer energy.
  • Compare the processes of aerobic and anaerobic respiration with regard to the need for oxygen, the differing products and the relative amounts of energy transferred.
  • Write the balanced symbol equation for respiration.
  • Describe respiration as an exothermic reaction.
  • Plan an investigation to include a control.
  • Describe how the effectiveness of exchange surfaces is increased.
  • Use ideas about surface area to volume ratio to describe why multicellular organisms need exchange surfaces.
  • Calculate the surface area to volume ratio of a cylinder.
  • Summarise the process of blood clotting.
  • View blood under a light microscope and recognise components.
  • Explain how red blood cells are adapted to their function.
  • Explain how the structure of blood vessels relates to their function.
  • Comment on how accurate estimations are.
  • Explain why an irregular heartbeat is detrimental to health.
  • Describe why people may have objections to heart transplants.
  • Describe the problems that can develop in blood vessels in the human heart, and their treatments.
  • Suggest advantages and disadvantages of using stents and statins.
  • Describe the function of the main structures of the gas exchange system.
  • Describe how alveoli are adapted for gas exchange.
  • Describe the processes of ventilation and gas exchange.
  • Describe the structure of simple sugars, starch, lipids, and proteins.
  • Carry out multiple food tests in an organised manner.
  • Design a results table to clearly record results from food tests.
  • Describe the pathway of impulses from receptor to effector.
  • Describe how information is passed along neurons.
  • Evaluate a method and describe how accuracy could be increased.
  • Explain how the various structures in a reflex arc – including the sensory neuron, synapse relay neuron and motor neurons – relate to their function. 
  • Understand why reflex actions are important.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Recognise the chemical symbols: C6H12O6, O2, CO2 and H2O.
  • Extract and interpret data from graphs, charts and tables, about the functioning of the nervous system.
  • Translate information about reaction times between numerical and graphical forms.
  • Identify the position of the following on a diagram of the human body: pituitary gland, pancreas, thyroid, adrenal gland, ovary and testes.
  • Interpret and explain simple diagrams of negative feedback control.
  • Draw a scientific drawing of a root hair cell observed using a light microscope
  • Process data from investigations involving stomata and transpiration rates to find arithmetic means, understand the principles of sampling and calculate surface areas and volumes.
  • Measure and calculate rates of photosynthesis
  • Extract and interpret graphs of photosynthesis rate involving one limiting factor
  • Use the Rf calculation.
  • Describe common errors in chromatography experiments

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Compare the structure of a specialised and a generalised plant cell.
  • Describe the adaptations of specialised plant cells.
  • Explain how the structures of plant tissues are related to their functions.
  • Draw a scientific drawing of a root hair cell observed using a light microscope
  • Tissue in plants can differentiate into any type of plant cell, throughout the life of the plant. 
  • Describe how plants can be cloned.
  • Describe how transpiration maintains the movement of water from roots to leaves.
  • Describe how the opening and closing of stomata is controlled by guard cells.
  • Use sampling to estimate the number of stomata on a leaf.
  • Explain why temperature, humidity, light intensity, and amount of air flow affect the rate of transpiration.
  • Describe the differences between a moving bubble potometer and a mass potometer.
  • Make a prediction using scientific knowledge when investigating the rate of transpiration.
  • Describe how the leaf is adapted for photosynthesis.
  • Write the balanced symbol equation for photosynthesis.
  • Describe an experiment to prove that plants carry out photosynthesis when exposed to light.
  • Describe why greenhouses increase plant growth.
  • Comment on the cost-effectiveness of adding heat, light, or carbon dioxide to greenhouses.
  • Discuss the benefits of using greenhouses and hydroponics.
  • Describe and explain the effect of TMV and rose black spot disease on plants.
  • Describe methods of treating plant diseases.
  • Know that chromatography involves a stationary phase and a mobile phase. Separation depends on the distribution of substances between the phases.
  • Explain how chromatography separates solutes.
  • Calculate Rf values from given data.
  • Use a chromatogram to determine if a sample is pure or impure.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Draw a scientific drawing of a root hair cell observed using a light microscope
  • Process data from investigations involving stomata and transpiration rates to find arithmetic means, understand the principles of sampling and calculate surface areas and volumes.
  • Measure and calculate rates of photosynthesis
  • Extract and interpret graphs of photosynthesis rate involving one limiting factor
  • Use the Rf calculation.
  • Describe common errors in chromatography experiments

Interactions over small and large distances

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Draw a scale diagram to represent a single vector.
  • Categorise a wide range of quantities as either a vector or a scalar.
  • Compare a scalar and a similar vector and explain how these quantities are different.
  • Draw a scaled diagram of the forces acting in a range of situations using arrows to represent the forces.
  • (H) Calculate resultant force produced by several forces acting on an object in coplanar directions.
  • Describe the effect of zero and non-zero resultant forces on the motion of moving and stationary objects.
  • Calculate the weight of objects using their mass and the gravitational
  • field strength.
  • Apply the concept of balanced forces to explain why an object falling through a fluid will reach a terminal velocity.
  • Investigate the relationship between the mass of an object and the terminal velocity.
  • Find the resultant of two forces at an acute angle by drawing a scale diagram.
  • Describe a system in equilibrium in which non-parallel forces are acting.
  • Calculate the component of a force using scale diagrams and ratios.
  • Resolve a single force into two perpendicular components.
  • Determine if an object is in equilibrium by considering the horizontal and vertical forces.
  • Investigate the effect of increasing the weight of an object on a slope on the component of the weight acting along the slope.
  • Describe the action of frictional forces on objects and the associated heating effect.
  • Use the equation for work done to calculate distances or size of forces.
  • Use repeat values to measure the work done by a force experimentally.
  • Describe the effect of a different gravitational field strength on the gravitational potential energy store changes of a system.
  • Calculate the gravitational potential energy store of a system using the mass, gravitational field strength, and height.
  • Describe energy changes that involve a heating effect as opposed to movement of an object.
  • Explain the limitations of Hooke’s law including the limit of proportionality.
  • Calculate the force required to cause a given extension in a spring using the spring constant.
  • Compare the behaviour of different materials under loads in terms of proportional and non-proportional behaviour.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Calculate the resultant of two forces that act in a straight line.
  • Use vector diagrams to illustrate resolution of forces, equilibrium situations and determine the resultant of two forces, to include both magnitude and direction (scale drawings only).
  • Use the calculation weight = mass × gravitational field strength
  • Use vector diagrams to illustrate resolution of forces, equilibrium situations and determine the resultant of two forces, to include both magnitude and direction (scale drawings only).
  • Draw vector diagrams
  • Use the calculation work done = force × distance
  • Use and rearrange the equation g . p . e . = mass × gravitational field strength × height

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Draw dot and cross diagrams of compounds formed between Group 1 and Group 7 elements.
  • Explain how electron transfer allows ionic bonding to occur in the compound formed when a Group 1 metal reacts with a Group 7 non-metal.
  • Explain how the position of an element in the periodic table relates to the charge on its most stable monatomic ion.
  • Explain, in terms of electronic structure, how unfamiliar elements become ions.
  • Interpret the formulae of familiar ionic compounds to determine the number and type of each ion present.
  • Explain how a covalent bond forms in terms of electronic structure.
  • Draw dot and cross diagrams and ball and stick diagrams for H2, Cl2, O2, N2, HCl, H2O, NH3, and CH4.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Relate the number of electrons in the outer shell of an atom to the ionic charge
  • Draw dot and cross diagrams for ionic compounds formed by metals in Groups 1 and 2 with non-metals in Groups 6 and 7.
  • Deduce that a compound is ionic from a diagram of its structure in one of the specified forms
  • Draw dot and cross diagrams for covalent compounds
  • Recognise substances as metallic giant structures from diagrams showing their bonding

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Sketch the shape of a magnetic field around a bar magnet.
  • Describe how the shape of a magnetic field can be investigated.
  • Compare the Earth’s magnetic field to that of a bar magnet.
  • Sketch the shape of a magnetic field around a bar magnet.
  • Describe how the shape of a magnetic field can be investigated.
  • Compare the Earth’s magnetic field to that of a bar magnet.
  • Know that when a conductor carrying a current is placed in a magnetic field the magnet producing the field and the conductor exert a force on each other. This is called the motor effect.
  • Recall factors that affect the size of conduction.
  • Describe how the force acting on a wire due to the motor effect can be increased.
  • Apply Fleming’s left-hand rule to determine the direction of the force acting on a conductor.
  • Calculate the force acting on a conductor when it is placed in a magnetic field.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Draw the magnetic field pattern of a bar magnet showing how strength and direction change from one point to another
  • Draw the magnetic field pattern for a straight wire carrying a current and for a solenoid (showing the direction of the field)
  • Show that Fleming’s left-hand rule represents the relative orientation of the force, the current in the conductor and the magnetic field.
  • Use and rearrange force = magnetic flux density × current × length

Movement and interaction

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Use the gradients of distance–time graphs to compare the speeds of objects.
  • Describe the motion of an object by interpreting distance–time graphs.
  • Calculate the speed of an object and the time taken to travel a given distance.
  • Identify the features of a velocity–time graph.
  • Rearrange the acceleration equation in calculations.
  • Calculate the change in velocity for an object under constant acceleration for a given period of time.
  • Describe sections of velocity–time graphs, and compare the acceleration in these sections.
  • Calculate the distance travelled using information taken from a velocity–time graph for one section of motion.
  • Use a series of repeat measurements to find an accurate measurement of the acceleration of a moving object.
  • Calculate the speed of an object by extracting data from a distance–time graph.
  • (H) Use a tangent to determine the speed of an object from a distance–time graph.
  • Use the equation v2 − u2 = 2as in calculations where the initial or final velocity is zero.
  • Describe the effect of changing the mass or the force acting on an object on the acceleration of that object.
  • Perform calculations involving the rearrangement of the F = ma equation.
  • Combine separate experimental conclusions to form an overall conclusion.
  • Calculate the weight of objects using their mass and the gravitational field strength.
  • Apply the concept of balanced forces to explain why an object falling through a fluid will reach a terminal velocity.
  • Investigate the relationship between the mass of an object and the terminal velocity.
  • Apply the equation p = mv to find the momentum, velocity or mass of an object.
  • Describe how the principle of conservation of momentum can be used to find the velocities of objects.
  • Investigate the behaviour of objects during explosions to verify the conservation of momentum.
  • Calculate the kinetic energy store of an object.
  • Calculate the elastic potential energy store of a stretched spring.
  • Investigate the relationship between the energy stored in a spring and the kinetic energy store of an object launched from it.
  • Categorise factors which affect thinking distance, braking distance, and both.
  • Calculate the braking distance of a car.
  • Describe the relationship between speed and both thinking and braking distance.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Draw distance–time graphs from measurements and extract and interpret lines and slopes of distance–time graphs, translating information between graphical and numerical form.
  • Recall and apply the acceleration equation. 
  • Draw velocity–time graphs from measurements and interpret lines and slopes to determine acceleration
  • Draw velocity–time graphs from measurements and interpret lines and slopes to determine acceleration.
  • (HT only) interpret enclosed areas in velocity–time graphs to determine distance travelled (or displacement). (HT only) measure, when appropriate, the area under a velocity–time graph by counting squares.
  • Use the calculation weight = mass × gravitational field strength
  • Recall and apply the momentum equation.
  • Recall and apply the kinetic and elastic energy calculations.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Describe the operation of a variable resistor and a diode and their effects on current.
  • Calculate the charge transferred by a steady current in a given time.
  • Construct an electrical circuit and accurately measure the current.
  • Calculate the potential difference.
  • Calculate the resistance of a component.
  • Measure the effect of changing the length of a wire on its resistance in a controlled experiment.
  • Describe the resistance characteristics of a filament lamp.
  • Describe the characteristics of a diode and light-emitting diode.
  • Investigate the resistance characteristics of a thermistor and a LDR.
  • Find the potential difference across a component in a circuit by using the p.d. rule.
  • Calculate the current in a series circuit containing more than one resistor.
  • Investigate the resistance of series circuits with several components.
  • Measure the p.d. across parallel circuits and explain any discrepancies.
  • Describe the effect on the resistance in a circuit of adding a resistor in parallel.
  • Investigate the effect of adding resistors in parallel on the size of the current in a circuit.
  • Describe the characteristics of the UK mains supply.
  • Compare a.c. traces in terms of period and amplitude (voltage) to .c..
  • Operate a cathode ray oscilloscope to display an a.c. trace.
  • Discuss the choices of materials used in cables and plugs in terms of their physical and electrical properties.
  • Describe why a short circuit inside a device presents a hazard.
  • Identify a variety of electrical hazards associated with plugs and sockets.
  • Calculate the power of systems.
  • Calculate the power of electrical devices.
  • Select an appropriate fuse for a device.
  • Calculate the charge transferred by a current in a given time.
  • Calculate the energy transferred by a charge passing through a potential difference.
  • Apply the law of conservation of energy in a circuit.
  • Calculate energy transfer in kilowatt-hours.
  • Convert between efficiencies stated in percentages and those stated in decimal forms.
  • Calculate the power rating of a device from the energy transferred and the time of operation.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Use the equation Q=It
  • Use the equation V=IR
  • Draw and recognise p.d. v current graphs for ohmic conductors, filament lamps and diodes.
  • Calculate resistance.
  • Use the equation P=IV and P=I2R
  • Use the equation E=Pt and E=QV
  • Use the equations: efficiency = useful output energy transfer/ total input energy transfer
  • Efficiency may also be calculated using the equation: efficiency = useful power output/total power input

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Describe how to make a salt by reacting a metal with an acid.
  • Write a balanced symbol equation to describe a reaction between a metal and sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid.
  • Identify the chemical formula of the salt produced from the reaction between an acid and a metal.
  • Describe a method to prepare a pure, dry sample of a soluble salt from an insoluble substance and a dilute acid.
  • Write a balanced symbol equation to describe a reaction between a metal hydroxide or oxide and sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid.
  • Explain why the reaction between a base and a dilute acid is a neutralisation reaction.
  • Describe how to make a dry sample of a salt from reacting a metal carbonate or an alkali with a dilute acid.
  • Write balanced symbol equations for neutralisation reactions.
  • Describe examples of exothermic and endothermic reactions.
  • Explain, using observations from calorimetry, how to classify a reaction as exothermic or endothermic.
  • Explain in detail how to carry out a calorimetry experiment.
  • Describe how universal indicator can be used to classify a chemical as acidic or alkaline.
  • Describe how solutions can be acidic or alkaline.
  • Describe the relationship between alkalis and bases.
  • Recall examples of strong and weak acids.
  • Describe how an acid or alkali can be concentrated or dilute.
  • Describe how an acid or alkali can be weak or strong.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Predict products from given reactants
  • Use the formulae of common ions to deduce the formulae of salts.
  • Describe how to make pure, dry samples of named soluble salts from information provided.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Explain how there can be different units for measuring rate of reaction.
  • Calculate the mean rate of reaction.
  • Calculate the rate of reaction at a specific time.
  • Use collision theory to explain how changing temperature alters the rate of reaction.
  • Calculate mean rates of reaction.
  • Use collision theory to explain how changing temperature alters the rate of reaction.
  • Calculate mean rates of reaction.
  • Use collision theory to explain how changing concentration or pressure alters the rate of reaction.
  • Calculate mean rates of reaction.
  • Explain how to change gas pressure.
  • Label activation energy on a reaction profile diagram.
  • Generate a specific reaction profile diagram for a given chemical reaction when its energy change is also supplied.
  • (H) Identify bonds broken in reactants and new bonds made in products of a reaction.
  • Explain, using the particle model, how reactants become products in a chemical reaction.
  • Explain why bond breaking is endothermic and bond making is exothermic.
  • Define bond energy and identify all the bonds that break and are made in a chemical reaction.
  • Use collision theory to explain how adding a catalyst alters the rate of reaction.
  • Explain, with an example, the industrial use of a catalyst.
  • Calculate the mean rate of reaction.
  • Know that catalysts change the rate of chemical reactions but are not used up
  • during the reaction.
  • Describe that enzymes act as catalysts in biological systems.
  • Explain catalytic action in terms of activation energy.
  • Explain why high temperatures and changes in pH prevent enzymes from catalysing reactions.
  • Draw a tangent to a line and calculate the rate of a reaction with guidance.
  • Plot a line graph and use it to draw conclusions about how temperature and pH affect the rate of an enzyme-catalysed reaction.
  • Explain, using a familiar example, how a reaction can be reversible.
  • Describe a familiar reversible reaction using a balanced symbol equation.
  • Predict the observations of a familiar reversible reaction when the conditions are changed.
  • Describe how to achieve dynamic equilibrium.
  • Describe how rate of the forward reaction compares to rate of the backward reaction in a dynamic equilibrium.
  • (H) Describe Le Chatelier’s Principle.
  • Explain how changing conditions for a system at dynamic equilibrium affects the rate of the forward and reverse reactions.
  • Predict the effect on yield of changing temperature, concentration, or pressure I a given equilibrium system.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Use the equation rate of reaction = amount of product formed/time. 
  • Use the equation, rate of reaction = amount of reactant used/time. 
  • Calculate the mean rate of a reaction from given information about the quantity of a reactant used or the quantity of a product formed and the time taken.
  • Draw, and interpret, graphs showing the quantity of product formed or quantity of reactant used up against time
  • Draw simple reaction profiles (energy level diagrams) for exothermic and endothermic reactions showing the relative energies of reactants and products, the activation energy and the overall energy change, with a curved line to show the energy as the reaction proceeds
  • Calculate the energy transferred in chemical reactions using bond energies supplied.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Explain why a displacement reaction occurs.
  • Write word equations and straightforward balanced symbol equations for displacement reactions.
  • Predict observations for the metals listed in the reactivity series reacting with a different metal salt.
  • Explain why limewater turns milky when it reacts with carbon dioxide.
  • Interpret results to identify a gas that is present.
  • Explain why hydrogen ‘pops’ near a naked flame.
  • Describe electrolysis in terms of movement of ions.
  • Write a balanced symbol equation including state symbols for the overall electrolysis of a molten ionic compound.
  • Predict the products at each electrode for the electrolysis of a molten ionic compound.
  • Describe electrolysis of solutions in terms of movement of ions.
  • Write a balanced symbol equation including state symbols for the overall
  • electrolysis of a solution.
  • Predict the products at each electrode for the electrolysis of a molten ionic compound or its solution.
  • Describe the electrolysis of aluminium oxide.
  • Explain why electrolysis is an expensive metal extraction method and illustrate this with the extraction of aluminium.
  • Explain why cryolite is added to aluminium oxide in the industrial extraction of aluminium.
  • Describe the electrolysis of aluminium oxide.
  • Explain why electrolysis is an expensive metal extraction method and illustrate this with the extraction of aluminium.
  • Explain why cryolite is added to aluminium oxide in the industrial extraction of aluminium.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Deduce an order of reactivity of metals based on experimental results.
  • Predict the products from electrolysis.
  • (HT) Use half equations to predict products.

Interactions with the environment

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Describe the difference between communicable and non-communicable diseases.
  • Use a scatter diagram to identify a correlation between two variables.
  • Construct and interpret bar charts, frequency tables, frequency diagrams, and histograms.
  • Classify diseases as communicable or non-communicable.
  • Draw conclusions from data on risk factors.
  • Decide whether a link is causal.
  • Describe the effects of the harmful substances found in tobacco smoke.
  • Analyse data to describe evidence for the link between smoking and lung disease.
  • Describe causal mechanisms for the link between exercise and health.
  • Suggest measures to prevent a further rise in the number of people with type 2 diabetes.
  • Describe the short- and long-term effects of drinking alcohol.
  • Describe the effects of alcohol on unborn babies.
  • Describe the link between ionising radiation and cancer.
  • Describe the difference between benign and malignant tumours.
  • Describe why carcinogens and ionising radiation increase the risk of tumours forming.
  • Analyse data to assess the risks and benefi ts of chemotherapy.
  • Explain why an irregular heartbeat is detrimental to health.
  • Describe why people may have objections to heart transplants.
  • Summarise the advantages and disadvantages of different treatments for heart problems.
  • Define homeostasis
  • Define and explain the roles of receptors, coordination centres and effects.
  • Describe what happens when blood glucose levels become too high or too low.
  • Describe the difference in the causes of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes.
  • Explain why Type 1 diabetes is treated with insulin injections.
  • Explain how Type 2 diabetes can be treated by changes to diet and exercise.
  • Describe how the production of insulin for people with diabetes has developed over time.
  • Compare and contrast the changes to boys and girls during puberty.
  • Name the hormones involved in the menstrual cycle.
  • Name the glands that produce the hormones oestrogen, progesterone, LH, and FSH.
  • Describe the function of the hormones that control the menstrual cycle..
  • Explain how contraceptives work.
  • List the advantages and disadvantages of different contraceptives.
  • Describe what is meant by infertility and suggest reasons for it.
  • Describe the steps used in IVF.
  • Outline the issues surrounding IVF.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Interpret data about risk factors for specified diseases.
  • Identify the position of the following on a diagram of the human body: pituitary gland, pancreas, thyroid, adrenal gland, ovary and testes.
  • Evaluate information around the relationship between obesity and diabetes, and make recommendations taking into account social and ethical issues.
  • Be able to extract information and interpret data from graphs that show the effect of insulin in blood glucose levels in both people with diabetes and people without diabetes.
  • Show why issues around contraception cannot be answered by science alone.
  • Understand social and ethical issues associated with IVF treatments.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Describe some safety precautions used when dealing with radioactive materials.
  • Describe how a Geiger counter can be used to detect radiation.
  • Identify natural and man-made sources of background radiation.
  • Describe the plum pudding model of the atom.
  • Describe the evidence provided by the Rutherford scattering experiment.
  • Describe the properties of protons, neutrons, and electrons.
  • Calculate the number of neutrons in an isotope by using nuclear notation.
  • Describe the differences between isotopes.
  • Complete decay equations for alpha and beta decay.
  • Describe how the penetrating powers of radiation can be measured.
  • Describe the path of radiation types through a magnetic field.
  • Describe the process of ionisation.
  • (H) Find the ratio of a sample remaining after a given number of half-lives.
  • State that all atoms of a particular isotope have an identical chance to decay in a fixed time.
  • Plot a graph showing the decay of a sample and use it to determine half-life.

Interactions with the environment

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Describe the difference between benign and malignant tumours.
  • Describe why carcinogens and ionising radiation increase the risk of tumours forming.
  • Analyse data to assess the risks and benefits of chemotherapy.
  • Explain why an irregular heartbeat is detrimental to health.
  • Describe why people may have objections to heart transplants.
  • Summarise the advantages and disadvantages of different treatments for heart problems.
  • Define homeostasis
  • Define and explain the roles of receptors, coordination centres and effects.
  • Describe what happens when blood glucose levels become too high or too low.
  • Describe the difference in the causes of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes.
  • Explain why Type 1 diabetes is treated with insulin injections.
  • Explain how Type 2 diabetes can be treated by changes to diet and exercise.
  • Describe how the production of insulin for people with diabetes has developed over time.
  • Compare and contrast the changes to boys and girls during puberty.
  • Name the hormones involved in the menstrual cycle.
  • Name the glands that produce the hormones oestrogen, progesterone, LH, and FSH.
  • Describe the function of the hormones that control the menstrual cycle..
  • Explain how contraceptives work.
  • List the advantages and disadvantages of different contraceptives.
  • Describe what is meant by infertility and suggest reasons for it.
  • Describe the steps used in IVF.
  • Outline the issues surrounding IVF.

Core skills

  • Identify the position of the following on a diagram of the human body: pituitary gland, pancreas, thyroid, adrenal gland, ovary and testes.
  • Evaluate information around the relationship between obesity and diabetes, and make recommendations taking into account social and ethical issues.
  • Be able to extract information and interpret data from graphs that show the effect of insulin in blood glucose levels in both people with diabetes and people without diabetes.
  • Show why issues around contraception cannot be answered by science alone.
  • Understand social and ethical issues associated with IVF treatments.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Describe some safety precautions used when dealing with radioactive materials.
  • Describe how a Geiger counter can be used to detect radiation.
  • Identify natural and man-made sources of background radiation.
  • Describe the plum pudding model of the atom.
  • Describe the evidence provided by the Rutherford scattering experiment.
  • Describe the properties of protons, neutrons, and electrons.
  • Calculate the number of neutrons in an isotope by using nuclear notation.
  • Describe the differences between isotopes.
  • Complete decay equations for alpha and beta decay.
  • Describe how the penetrating powers of radiation can be measured.
  • Describe the path of radiation types through a magnetic field.
  • Describe the process of ionisation.
  • (H) Find the ratio of a sample remaining after a given number of half-lives.
  • State that all atoms of a particular isotope have an identical chance to decay in a fixed time.
  • Plot a graph showing the decay of a sample and use it to determine half-life.
  • Describe how rose black spot affects the plant and how it is treated.
  • Link ways of controlling the spread of malaria to specific parts of the protist’s life cycle.
  • Describe how human body defence mechanisms stop the entry of pathogens.
  • Describe the role of white blood cells in the defence against disease.
  • Use a model to explain how the body defends itself against disease.
  • Explain how vaccination works.
  • Describe what an antibody and an antigen are.
  • Describe how antibiotics work.
  • Describe what is meant by antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
  • Explain why it is difficult to develop drugs to treat viral infections.
  • Explain why each procedure in drugs testing and trialling is used.
  • Describe how a double blind trial is carried out.
  • Explain why a placebo is used during drug trialling.
  • Describe what a monoclonal antibody is.
  • Outline the procedure used to produce monoclonal antibodies.
  • Give some uses of monoclonal antibodies.
  • Describe differences between embryonic and adult stem cells.
  • Explain why plant clones are produced in agriculture.
  • Describe how stem cells can be used to treat medical conditions.
  • Describe what therapeutic cloning can be used for.
  • Explain the reasons for ethical and religious objections to use of stem cells in medicine.
  • Verbally communicate well-constructed arguments.

Core skills

  • Interpret graphs and tables and evaluate trends in different diseases.
  • Evaluate the usefulness of different medications.
  • Evaluate the usefulness of different drugs
  • Evaluate the practical risks and benefits, as well as social and ethical issues, of the use of stem cells in medical research and treatments.

Explaining change

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • State the composition, including formulae, of the Earth’s early atmosphere.
  • Describe a theory for the development of the Earth’s atmosphere.
  • Explain, using word equations, how gases were formed in the atmosphere and how oceans were formed.
  • Describe how the proportion of carbon dioxide in the early atmosphere was reduced.
  • State the composition of dry air.
  • Use word equations to show how carbon dioxide can form sedimentary rocks.
  • Explain the greenhouse effect
  • Explain how greenhouse gases increase the temperature of the atmosphere.
  • Explain how human activity can change the proportion of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
  • Explain the possible effects of global climate change and why they are difficult to predict.
  • Explain possible methods to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Explain some of the problems in trying to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Explain how sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are made when fossil fuels are combusted.
  • Describe the health impacts of atmospheric pollutants.
  • Use balanced symbol equations to show how atmospheric pollutants are formed.
  • Describe and classify a resource as finite or renewable when information is given.
  • Explain the use of natural, sustainable, and finite resources.
  • Interpret information from different formats including graphs, charts, tables, and prose.
  • Explain why the method of obtaining potable water depends on the local conditions.
  • Explain reasons for filtration and sterilisation in water treatment.
  • Describe and explain in detail how to safely distil salty water.
  • Explain why waste water should be treated before it is released into the environment.
  • Describe the main processes in sewage treatment.
  • Explain uses of sewage slurry.
  • (HT) Describe the processes of phytomining and bioleaching.
  • (HT) Write balanced symbol equations to explain metal extraction techniques.
  • (HT) Explain the need for new ways of extracting metals (in particular copper).

Core skills

  • Analyse data on the atmospheric gases.
  • Evaluate evidence and data on the greenhouse effect
  • Compare and evaluate different methods of reducing greenhouse gases.
  • Explain the difference between complete and incomplete combustion using chemical equations.
  • Calculate orders of magnitude
  • Evaluate the pros and cons of reverse osmosis and distillation
  • (HT) Compare and evaluate the pros and cons of each process

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Describe the relationship between DNA, genes, and chromosomes.
  • Describe some of the benefits of studying the human genome.
  • Explain why genome projects are costly and take a long time.
  • Use the terms allele, dominant, recessive, homozygous, and heterozygous correctly.
  • Describe a phenotype when given the genotype.
  • Carry out a genetic cross to show sex inheritance.
  • Use direct proportion and simple ratios to express the outcome of a genetic cross.
  • Name examples of inherited disorders, such as cystic fibrosis and polydactyly.
  • Use a genetic cross to explain how inherited disorders are passed on.
  • Outline the methods used to screen embryos.
  • List advantages and disadvantages of embryo screening.
  • List some examples of variation in plants and categorise these as being due to genetic causes, environmental causes, or both.
  • Suggest reasons why identical twins will start to show variation as they get older.
  • Use data to explain why studying identical twins helps scientists investigate which traits have genetic causes.
  • Describe the steps in the process of speciation.
  • Explain why there are species living on Madagascar that share some similarities with species found elsewhere.
  • Carry out research to describe other examples of speciation.
  • Explain the process of selective breeding.
  • Explain why humans have used selective breeding.
  • Explain what inbreeding is, and why it is a problem in dog breeding.
  • Define genetic engineering.
  • Explain how genetic engineering results in more resilient crops.
  • (HT) Explain the process of GE.
  • Outline the potential benefits and risks of genetic engineering.
  • Describe economic and ethical concerns that people may have about cloning animals.

Core skills

  • Use genetic cross diagrams to predict phenotypes.
  • Calculating ratios and percentages.
  • Calculating ratios and percentages.
  • Predict the outcomes of selective breeding.
  • Evaluate the ethical issues associated with GM crops.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Describe how fossils are formed.
  • Describe how fossils are evidence for evolution by natural selection.
  • Explain why the fossil record is not complete.
  • Describe how antibiotic resistant bacteria evolve.
  • Explain why scientists need to develop new antibiotics.
  • Create an information sheet outlining important facts about antibiotic resistant bacteria to the public.
  • Describe how antibiotic resistant bacteria evolve.
  • Explain why scientists need to develop new antibiotics.
  • Create an information sheet outlining important facts about antibiotic resistant bacteria to the public.
  • Describe the classification system developed by Carl Linnaeus, to include the order of the taxonomic groups.
  • Identify genus and species from a scientific name.
  • Explain why a binomial naming system is useful.
  • Describe how organisms are divided in the three-domain system.
  • Describe why the three-domain system was proposed.
  • Draw several conclusions from a simple evolutionary tree.

Core skills

  • Use an evolutionary tree.

Movement and interaction

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Explain why a displacement reaction occurs.
  • Write word equations and straightforward balanced symbol equations for displacement reactions.
  • Predict observations for the metals listed in the reactivity series reacting with a different metal salt.
  • Explain why limewater turns milky when it reacts with carbon dioxide.
  • Interpret results to identify a gas that is present.
  • Explain why hydrogen ‘pops’ near a naked flame.
  • Describe electrolysis in terms of movement of ions.
  • Write a balanced symbol equation including state symbols for the overall electrolysis of a molten ionic compound.
  • Predict the products at each electrode for the electrolysis of a molten ionic compound.
  • Describe electrolysis of solutions in terms of movement of ions.
  • Write a balanced symbol equation including state symbols for the overall electrolysis of a solution.
  • Predict the products at each electrode for the electrolysis of a molten ionic compound or its solution.
  • Describe the electrolysis of aluminium oxide.
  • Explain why electrolysis is an expensive metal extraction method and illustrate this with the extraction of aluminium.
  • Explain why cryolite is added to aluminium oxide in the industrial extraction of aluminium.
  • Describe the electrolysis of aluminium oxide.
  • Explain why electrolysis is an expensive metal extraction method and illustrate this with the extraction of aluminium.
  • Explain why cryolite is added to aluminium oxide in the industrial extraction of aluminium.
  • Describe how to achieve dynamic equilibrium.
  • Describe how the rate of the forward reaction compares to the rate of the backward reaction in a dynamic equilibrium.
  • (HT) Describe Le Chatelier’s Principle.
  • Explain how changing conditions for a system at dynamic equilibrium affects the rate of the forward and reverse reactions.
  • Predict the effect on yield of changing temperature, concentration, or pressure in a given equilibrium system.

Core skills

  • Deduce an order of reactivity of metals based on experimental results.
  • Predict the products from electrolysis.
  • (HT) Use half equations to predict products.

Guiding spaceship Earth towards a sustainable future

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Recognise the structure of a fullerene or nanotube in diagrams and prose.
  • Explain the structure of fullerenes.
  • List the properties and consequent uses of fullerenes and carbon nanotubes.
  • Describe the composition of crude oil.
  • State a definition of a hydrocarbon.
  • State a definition of an alkane.
  • Describe the composition of crude oil.
  • State a definition of a hydrocarbon.
  • State a definition of an alkane.
  • Define complete and incomplete combustion.
  • Write a word equation to describe the complete combustion of a hydrocarbon.
  • Write a word equation to describe the incomplete combustion of a hydrocarbon.
  • Define the process of cracking.
  • Generate a word equation to describe cracking.
  • Recognise and give examples of alkenes.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Describe the processes of phytomining and bioleaching.
  • Write balanced symbol equations to explain metal extraction techniques.
  • Explain the need for new ways of extracting metals (in particular copper).
  • Outline the operation of a fossil fuel burning power station.
  • Outline the operation of a nuclear power station.
  • Explain why biofuels are considered carbon neutral.
  • Describe the operation of a wind farm.
  • Describe the operation of a hydroelectric system.
  • Suggest the most appropriate energy resource to use in a range of scenarios.
  • Compare and contrast the operation of solar cells (photovoltaic cells) with solar heating panels.
  • Describe the operation of a solar power tower.
  • Describe the operation of a geothermal power plant.
  • Outline the operation of a fossil fuel burning power station.
  • Outline the operation of a nuclear power station.
  • Explain why biofuels are considered carbon neutral.
  • Use base load and start-up time data to explain why some power stations are in constant operation whereas others may be switched on and off.
  • Compare energy resources in terms of capital and operational costs.
  • Debate the construction of a power plant in the local area by using a wide range of information, much of which is provided.
  • Describe a wide range of energy stores in different contexts.
  • Describe changes in energy stores in terms of the process that causes the change.
  • Use quantitative descriptions of changes in energy stores.
  • Analyse energy changes to identify useful and less useful energy transfers.
  • Describe energy dissipation and how this reduces the capacity of a system to do work.
  • Investigate the factors that affect frictional forces.
  • Analyse temperature change data to compare the thermal conductivity of materials.
  • Describe the changes in the behaviour of the particles in a material as the temperature of the material increases.
  • Apply understanding of thermal conductivity in reducing energy dissipation through the choice of appropriate insulating materials.
  • Explain the importance of LCA and how it can be misused.
  • Carry out LCAs for different products when data is supplied.
  • Explain the importance of reusing and recycling products.
  • Explain why some recycling can be difficult.
  • Evaluate ways of reducing the use of limited resources when information is given.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Use the equation Q=It
  • Use the equation V=IR
  • Draw and recognise p.d. v current graphs for ohmic conductors, filament lamps and diodes.
  • Calculate resistance.
  • Use the equation P=IV and P=I2R
  • Use the equation E=Pt and E=QV
  • Use the equations: efficiency = useful output energy transfer/ total input energy transfer
  • Efficiency may also be calculated using the equation: efficiency = useful power output/total power input

Explaining Change

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Identify producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, tertiary consumers, predators, and prey in a food web.
  • Describe what happens to a population in a food web when another population changes.
  • Plot data as a line graph and explain the pattern of predator and prey populations.
  • Explain why decomposers are important to a stable ecosystem.
  • Explain the importance of recycling substances.
  • Describe the events in the decay cycle.
  • Describe the events in the carbon cycle.
  • Explain why the carbon cycle is vital to life on Earth.
  • Write word equations for photosynthesis, respiration, and combustion.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Describe how sewage, fertilisers, pesticides, and herbicides pollute the land and water.
  • Describe the processes of eutrophication and bioaccumulation.
  • Draw conclusions from data.
  • Describe why a good level of biodiversity is important to the future of the human species.
  • Describe some effects of human population growth.
  • Analyse and interpret data and information concerning human population growth.
  • Describe how acid rain is formed.
  • Plan an investigation to find out how acid rain affects the germination of seeds.
  • Choose a suitable method for analysing data.
  • Explain the effects of deforestation and peat removal.
  • Categorise reasons for and effects of deforestation as environmental, social, economic, and/or political.
  • Describe why there is a conflict between using peat to increase food production and the need to conserve peat bogs.
  • Use the terms greenhouse effect, global warming, and climate change correctly.
  • Describe in detail the biological consequences of global warming.
  • Describe programmes to reduce negative effects on ecosystems and explain how they work.
  • Use information to explain the conflicting pressures on maintaining biodiversity.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Define the terms community, population, habitat, ecosystem, abiotic factor, biotic factor.
  • Describe what a stable community is and give an example.
  • Suggest how one species relies on another.
  • Describe how a factor influences the distribution of organisms.
  • Record measurements of abiotic factors.
  • Explain how to use a quadrat and a transect to estimate population sizes.
  • Design a method to estimate a population using a sampling technique.
  • Calculate range, mean, median, and mode in order to analyse results.
  • Use information to suggest factors that animals are competing for in a given habitat.
  • Explain tactics that help an animal compete for a resource.
  • Describe how the distribution of a species has changed because of competition.
  • Suggest factors that plants are competing for in a given habitat.
  • Explain why plants use seed dispersal.
  • Describe the methods plants use to outcompete others or avoid competition.
  • Suggest features that an organism may have in order to survive in a given habitat.
  • Explain how adaptations allow an organism to survive in its habitat.
  • Classify adaptations as structural, behavioural, or functional.
  • Calculate surface area to volume ratio.
  • Describe how animals are adapted to live in hot, dry, and cold habitats.
  • Explain how a plant adaptation allows it to survive in its habitat.
  • Explain why plants need to reduce water loss by transpiration.
  • Display data using a graph and describe what it shows.

Modules 4-5 – Ongoing specific revision of all prior topics

Module 6 – Exams

back to ks4 subjects

ks4 separate science

Cell Biology

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Compare and contrast the magnification and resolution obtained by using light and electron microscopes.
  • Justify the use of an electron microscope.
  • Rearrange the magnification formula and measure the size of cells.
  • Describe the functions of the parts of cells.
  • Compare plant and animal cells.
  • Use a microscope to study plant and algal cells.
  • Compare prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
  • Describe the functions of the parts of a prokaryotic cell.
  • Use orders of magnitude to compare the sizes of organisms.
  • Explain why animals have specialised cells.
  • Compare the structure of a specialised and a generalised animal cell.
  • Write a coherent explanation of how animal cells are adapted.
  • Compare the structure of a specialised and a generalised plant cell.
  • Describe the adaptations of specialised plant cells.
  • Draw a scientific drawing of a root hair cell observed using a light microscope
  • Predict which way substances will move across a cell membrane.
  • Explain why surface area affects the rate of diffusion.
  • Write a hypothesis using scientific knowledge.
  • State the differences between osmosis and diffusion.
  • Use ideas about osmosis to explain why maintaining constant internal conditions in living organisms is important.
  • Write a prediction using scientific knowledge of osmosis.
  • Use osmosis to explain the effect of placing plant tissue in salt or sugar solutions.
  • Write a suitable plan to investigate the effect of salt or sugar solutions on plant tissue.
  • Calculate percentage change and use this to plot a line graph with negative numbers and draw a line of best fit.
  • Explain why active transport is important for living organisms.
  • Explain the differences between diffusion, osmosis, and active transport.
  • Suggest some limitations of/improvements to a representational model that shows active transport.
  • Describe how the effectiveness of exchange surfaces is increased.
  • Use ideas about surface area to volume ratio to describe why multicellular organisms need exchange surfaces.
  • Calculate the surface area to volume ratio of a cylinder.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Use prefixes centi, milli, micro and nano.
  • Use and rearrange the equation magnification = size of image x size of real object.
  • Use estimations and explain when they should be used to judge the relative size or area of subcellular structures.
  • Recognise, draw and interpret diagrams that model diffusion.
  • Calculate and compare surface area to volume ratios.
  • Calculate percentage gain and loss of mass of plant tissue.
  • Plot, draw and interpret appropriate graphs of concentration v the change in mass.
  • Recognise, draw and interpret diagrams that model osmosis.
  • Compare active transport to diffusion and osmosis.
  • Students should be able to calculate and compare surface area to

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Explain why chromosomes in body cells are normally found in pairs.
  • Describe situations where mitosis is occurring.
  • Use the key words to describe the process of mitosis.
  • Describe the importance of cell differentiation in multicellular organisms.
  • Explain how using tissue culture creates a clone of a plant.
  • Attempt to clone a plant by using apparatus correctly and following safety rules.
  • Describe differences between embryonic and adult stem cells.
  • Explain why plant clones are produced in agriculture.
  • Describe how stem cells can be used to treat medical conditions.
  • Describe what therapeutic cloning can be used for.
  • Explain the reasons for ethical and religious objections to use of stem cells in medicine.
  • Verbally communicate well-constructed arguments.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Evaluate the practical risks and benefits, as well as social and ethical issues, of the use of stem cells in medical research and treatments.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Define the terms tissue, organ, and organ system.
  • Describe the function of certain organs and organ systems.
  • Identify tissues that make up organs.
  • Name all of the organs of the digestive system.
  • Describe the functions of the organs of the digestive system.
  • Summarise the process of digestion.
  • Describe the structure of simple sugars, starch, lipids, and proteins.
  • Carry out multiple food tests in an organised manner.
  • Design a results table to clearly record results from food tests.
  • Describe how enzymes are used in digestion.
  • Use the lock and key theory to explain why the shape of an enzyme is vital for it to function.
  • Identify the key variables in a given investigation.
  • Explain why high temperatures and changes in pH prevent enzymes from catalysing reactions.
  • Draw a tangent to a line and calculate the rate of a reaction with guidance.
  • Plot a line graph and use it to draw conclusions about how temperature and pH affect the rate of an enzyme-catalysed reaction.
  • Explain why enzymes are needed for digestion.
  • For each food molecule, name the enzyme that acts on it, where it is produced, and which products are formed.
  • Plan and carry out an investigation in order to gather accurate results.
  • Describe the functions of bile.
  • Calculate the mean rate of an enzyme-catalysed reaction.
  • Analyse data in order to determine whether a hypothesis is correct.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Summarise the process of blood clotting.
  • View blood under a light microscope and recognise components.
  • Explain how red blood cells are adapted to their function.
  • Explain how the structure of blood vessels relates to their function.
  • Comment on how accurate estimations are.
  • Describe the function of the main structures of the human heart.
  • Describe the problems that can develop in blood vessels in the human heart, and their treatments.
  • Suggest advantages and disadvantages of using stents and statins.
  • Explain why an irregular heartbeat is detrimental to health.
  • Describe why people may have objections to heart transplants.
  • Summarise the advantages and disadvantages of different treatments for heart problems.
  • Describe the function of the main structures of the gas exchange system.
  • Describe how alveoli are adapted for gas exchange.
  • Describe the processes of ventilation and gas exchange.
  • Describe how plant organs are involved in the transport system.
  • Use a microscope to identify the different tissues in a cross-section of a leaf.
  • Explain how the structures of tissues in the leaf are related to their functions.
  • Describe why transport in plants is important.
  • Explain how the structure of xylem and phloem is adapted to their functions.
  • Describe how transpiration maintains the movement of water from roots to leaves.
  • Describe how the opening and closing of stomata is controlled by guard cells.
  • Use sampling to estimate the number of stomata on a leaf.
  • Explain why temperature, humidity, light intensity, and amount of air flow affect the rate of transpiration.
  • Describe the differences between a moving bubble potometer and a mass potometer.
  • Make a prediction using scientific knowledge when investigating the rate of transpiration.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Process data from investigations involving stomata and transpiration rates to find arithmetic means, understand the principles of sampling and calculate surface areas and volumes.

Disease and bioenergetics

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Describe the difference between communicable and non-communicable diseases.
  • Use a scatter diagram to identify a correlation between two variables.
  • Construct and interpret bar charts, frequency tables, frequency diagrams, and histograms.
  • Describe how bacteria and viruses cause disease.
  • Explain why communicable diseases spread rapidly following a natural disaster.
  • State that bacteria reproduce by cell division and this is called binary fission.
  • Prepare a bacterial culture on agar gel.
  • Follow the rules needed to prepare an uncontaminated culture.
  • Explain when an antiseptic, a disinfectant, and an antibiotic would be used.
  • Calculate the number of bacteria in a population after a certain time if given the mean division time.
  • Calculate the area of the clear areas around colonies using πr2.
  • Describe how the spread of diseases can be reduced or prevented.
  • Communicate to the public about how to stop the spread of a disease.
  • Describe how measles, HIV, and tobacco mosaic virus affect the infected organism.
  • Interpret data to describe how the number of people infected with measles in the UK has changed over time.
  • Describe similarities and differences between salmonella and gonorrhoea.
  • Describe how the spread of salmonella and gonorrhoea is controlled.
  • Describe how rose black spot affects the plant and how it is treated.
  • Link ways of controlling the spread of malaria to specific parts of the protist’s life cycle.
  • Describe how human body defence mechanisms stop the entry of pathogens.
  • Describe the role of white blood cells in the defence against disease.
  • Use a model to explain how the body defends itself against disease.
  • Describe how a plant disease is detected, and the methods used to identify the cause.
  • Explain how disease damages a plant.
  • Match signs of plant disease to ion deficiency.
  • Classify plant defences as physical, chemical, or mechanical.
  • Carry out research using secondary resources of own choice to present examples of plant defence responses.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Evaluate the effectiveness of different methods of reducing transmission
  • Interpret graphs and tables and evaluate trends in different diseases.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Explain how vaccination works.
  • Describe what an antibody and an antigen are.
  • Describe how antibiotics work.
  • Describe what is meant by antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
  • Explain why it is difficult to develop drugs to treat viral infections.
  • Explain why each procedure in drugs testing and trialling is used.
  • Describe how a double blind trial is carried out.
  • Explain why a placebo is used during drug trialling.
  • Describe what a monoclonal antibody is.
  • Outline the procedure used to produce monoclonal antibodies.
  • Give some uses of monoclonal antibodies.
  • Describe what a monoclonal antibody is.
  • Outline the procedure used to produce monoclonal antibodies.
  • Give some uses of monoclonal antibodies.
  • Describe the ways in which monoclonal antibodies can be used to treat cancer.
  • Outline the advantages and disadvantages of using monoclonal antibodies.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Evaluate the usefulness of different medications.
  • Evaluate the usefulness of different drugs

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Classify diseases as communicable or non-communicable.
  • Draw conclusions from data on risk factors.
  • Decide whether a link is causal.
  • Describe the difference between benign and malignant tumours.
  • Describe why carcinogens and ionising radiation increase the risk of tumours forming.
  • Analyse data to assess the risks and benefits of chemotherapy.
  • Describe the effects of the harmful substances found in tobacco smoke.
  • Analyse data to describe evidence for the link between smoking and lung disease.
  • Describe causal mechanisms for the link between exercise and health.
  • Suggest measures to prevent a further rise in the number of people with type 2 diabetes.
  • Describe the short- and long-term effects of drinking alcohol.
  • Describe the effects of alcohol on unborn babies.
  • Describe the link between ionising radiation and cancer.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Interpret data about risk factors for specified diseases.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Describe how the leaf is adapted for photosynthesis.
  • Write the balanced symbol equation for photosynthesis.
  • Describe an experiment to prove that plants carry out photosynthesis when exposed to light.
  • Describe why low temperature, shortage of carbon dioxide, shortage of light and shortage of chlorophyll limit the rate of photosynthesis.
  • Suggest which factor limits the rate of photosynthesis in a given situation.
  • Interpret and explain graphs of photosynthesis rate involving one limiting factor.
  • Describe all the ways in which plants use glucose, including how they make proteins.
  • Evaluate risks involved in the starch test.
  • Describe why greenhouses increase plant growth.
  • Comment on the cost-effectiveness of adding heat, light, or carbon dioxide to greenhouses.
  • Discuss the benefits of using greenhouses and hydroponics.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Measure and calculate rates of photosynthesis
  • Extract and interpret graphs of photosynthesis rate involving one limiting factor

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Write the balanced symbol equation for respiration.
  • Describe respiration as an exothermic reaction.
  • Plan an investigation to include a control.
  • Explain why heart rate, breathing rate, and breath volume change with exercise.
  • Choose the best way to display data and calculate percentage changes.
  • Write the balanced symbol equation for anaerobic respiration in plants and microorganisms.
  • Compare and contrast aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
  • Explain why muscles get tired during exercise.
  • Know that metabolism is the sum of all the reactions in a cell or body of an organism
  • (HT) Describe the role of the liver in repaying the oxygen debt.
  • (HT) Discuss whether it is possible to increase metabolism.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Recognise the chemical symbols: C6H12O6, O2, CO2 and H2O.

Atoms, bonding and moles

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Use the names and symbols of the first 20 elements in the periodic table, the elements in Groups 1 and 7.
  • Name compounds of these elements from given formulae or symbol equations.
  • Write word equations for the reactions in this specification.
  • Write formulae and balanced chemical equations for the reactions in this specification.
  • (HT) write balanced half equations and ionic equations where appropriate.
  • A mixture consists of two or more elements or compounds not chemically combined together. The chemical properties of each substance in the mixture are unchanged.
  • Mixtures can be separated by physical processes such as filtration, crystallisation, simple distillation, fractional distillation and chromatography.
  • Explain how paper chromatography separates mixtures.
  • Suggest how chromatographic methods can be used for distinguishing pure substances from impure substances.
  • Justify why the model of the atom has changed over time.
  • Evaluate the current model of an atom.
  • Describe atoms using the atomic model.
  • Explain why atoms have no overall charge.
  • Use atomic number and mass numbers of familiar atoms to determine the number of each subatomic particle.
  • Describe isotopes using the atomic model.
  • Explain why ions have a charge.
  • Use atomic number and mass numbers of familiar ions to determine the number of each subatomic particle.
  • Write the standard electronic configuration notation from a diagram for the first 20 elements.
  • Explain why elements in the same group react in a similar way.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Recognise and convert standard form.
  • Calculate the number of neutrons in an atom from the mass number and atomic (proton) number

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Describe how the elements are arranged in groups and periods in the periodic table.
  • Explain why the periodic table was a breakthrough in how to order elements.
  • Describe how the electronic structure of metals and non-metals are different.
  • Explain in terms of electronic structure how the elements are arranged in the periodic table.
  • Explain why the noble gases are unreactive and the trend in their boiling
  • Recognise trends in supplied data.
  • Explain why the elements in Group 1 react similarly and why the first three elements float on water.
  • Describe how you can show that hydrogen and metal hydroxides are made when Group 1 metals react with water.
  • Recognise trends in supplied data.
  • Explain why the elements in Group 7 react similarly.
  • Explain how to complete a halogen displacement reaction and explain what happens in the reaction.
  • Describe how the properties of Group 1 metals compare with transition metals.
  • Interpret the formula and names of familiar transition metal compounds.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Explain how testing a prediction can support or refute a new scientific idea.
  • Visualise and represent 2D and 3D forms including two dimensional representations of 3D objects.
  • Draw electronic structures of atoms

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Draw dot and cross diagrams of compounds formed between Group 1 and Group 7 elements.
  • Explain how electron transfer allows ionic bonding to occur in the compound formed when a Group 1 metal reacts with a Group 7 non-metal.
  • Explain how the position of an element in the periodic table relates to the charge on its most stable monatomic ion.
  • Explain, in terms of electronic structure, how unfamiliar elements become ions.
  • Interpret the formulae of familiar ionic compounds to determine the number and type of each ion present.
  • Explain why ionic compounds have a high melting point.
  • Describe, in terms of ions, how an ionic compound can conduct electricity.
  • Explain the movement of ions in solution or when molten.
  • Describe metallic bonding.
  • Recognise and represent metallic bonding diagrammatically.
  • Explain key physical properties of metals using the model of metallic bonding.
  • Describe why metals are alloyed.
  • Explain how a covalent bond forms in terms of electronic structure.
  • Draw dot and cross diagrams and ball and stick diagrams for H2, Cl2, O2, N2,HCl, H2O, NH3, and CH4.
  • Describe a double bond in a diatomic molecule.
  • Recognise the structure of diamond and graphite from information provided in written or diagrammatic form.
  • Explain the properties of diamond in terms of its bonding.
  • Explain the properties of graphite in terms of its bonding.
  • Recognise the structure of a fullerene or nanotube in diagrams and prose.
  • Explain the structure of fullerenes.
  • List the properties and consequent uses of fullerenes and carbon nanotubes.
  • Describe the size of nanoparticles.
  • Explain why surface area to volume ratio increases as particle size decreases.
  • Convert lengths into standard form.
  • List the advantages and disadvantages of using nanoparticles.
  • Explain why nanoparticles can have new applications.
  • Use data to determine the state of a substance at a given temperature.
  • Explain, in terms of particles, the energy and temperature of a substance when it is at the melting point or boiling point.
  • Describe the factors that affect rate of evaporation.
  • Explain how the size of molecules affects melting and boiling points.
  • Explain why small molecules and polymers do not conduct electricity.
  • Identify substances that would have weak intermolecular forces.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Relate the number of electrons in the outer shell of an atom to the ionic charge
  • Draw dot and cross diagrams for ionic compounds formed by metals in Groups 1 and 2 with non-metals in Groups 6 and 7.
  • Deduce that a compound is ionic from a diagram of its structure in one of the specified forms
  • Recognise substances as metallic giant structures from diagrams showing their bonding
  • Draw dot and cross diagrams for covalent compounds

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Use the periodic table to find the relative atomic mass of all elements.
  • Calculate the relative formula mass for unfamiliar compounds when the formula is given.
  • (HT) State the units for the amount of substance.
  • Explain why chemical equations must be balanced.
  • Calculate the relative formula mass for one substance when the relative formula masses are given for all the other substances in a balanced symbol equation.
  • Explain why chemical equations must be balanced.
  • Identify the limiting reactant in a chemical reaction.
  • Calculate percentage yield when the actual yield is given and the mass of the limiting reactant is given.
  • List reasons why actual yield is often lower than theoretical yield.
  • Calculate the atom economy for a given chemical reaction.
  • Explain why using reactions with high atom economy is important.
  • (HT) Explain how concentration of a solution can be changed.
  • (HT) Calculate the mass of solute (in g) in a solution when given the concentration in g/dm3 and volume in dm3 or cm3.
  • Calculate a titre.
  • Describe how an indicator can be used to determine the end point.
  • Explain how accuracy can be improved in a titration.
  • Calculate the concentration of a solution in mol/dm3 when given the amount of solute in moles and volume of solution in dm3.
  • Calculate the amount of acid or alkali needed in a neutralisation reaction.
  • Calculate the mole and mass of solute (in g) in a solution when given the concentration in mol/dm3 and volume in dm3 or cm3.
  • Calculate the amount in moles of gas in a given volume at room temperature and pressure.
  • Convert units

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Calculate the percentage by mass of an elements in a compound
  • Substitute numerical values into algebraic equations using appropriate units for physical quantities.
  • Convert moles into whole number ratios
  • Calculate the mass of solute in a given volume of solution of known concentration in terms of mass per given volume of solution

Chemical reaction and energy changes

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Describe oxidation and reduction in terms of gain or loss of oxygen.
  • Write word equations for the metals listed in the reactivity series reacting with oxygen, water, and acid, and balance given symbol equations.
  • Predict observations for the metals listed in the reactivity series reacting with oxygen, water, and acid.
  • Explain why a displacement reaction occurs.
  • Write word equations and straightforward balanced symbol equations for displacement reactions.
  • Predict observations for the metals listed in the reactivity series reacting with a different metal salt.
  • Identify species that are being oxidised and reduced in a chemical reaction.
  • Explain why some metals are found uncombined in the Earth’s crust.
  • Describe how to make a salt by reacting a metal with an acid.
  • Write a balanced symbol equation to describe a reaction between a metal and sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid.
  • Identify the chemical formula of the salt produced from the reaction between an acid and a metal.
  • Describe a method to prepare a pure, dry sample of a soluble salt from an insoluble substance and a dilute acid.
  • Write a balanced symbol equation to describe a reaction between a metal hydroxide or oxide and sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid.
  • Explain why the reaction between a base and a dilute acid is a neutralisation reaction.
  • Describe how to make a dry sample of a salt from reacting a metal carbonate or an alkali with a dilute acid.
  • Write balanced symbol equations for neutralisation reactions.
  • Describe how universal indicators can be used to classify a chemical as acidic or alkaline.
  • Describe how solutions can be acidic or alkaline.
  • Describe the relationship between alkalis and bases.
  • Recall examples of strong and weak acids.
  • Describe how an acid or alkali can be concentrated or dilute.
  • Describe how an acid or alkali can be weak or strong.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Deduce an order of reactivity of metals based on experimental results.
  • Predict products from given reactants
  • Use the formulae of common ions to deduce the formulae of salts.
  • Describe how to make pure, dry samples of named soluble salts from information provided.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Describe electrolysis in terms of movement of ions.
  • Write a balanced symbol equation including state symbols for the overall electrolysis of a molten ionic compound.
  • Predict the products at each electrode for the electrolysis of a molten ionic compound.
  • Describe electrolysis of solutions in terms of movement of ions.
  • Write a balanced symbol equation including state symbols for the overall electrolysis of a solution.
  • Predict the products at each electrode for the electrolysis of a molten ionic compound or its solution.
  • Describe the electrolysis of aluminium oxide.
  • Explain why electrolysis is an expensive metal extraction method and illustrate this with the extraction of aluminium.
  • Explain why cryolite is added to aluminium oxide in the industrial extraction of aluminium.
  • Describe how to electrolyse brine in terms of ions moving.
  • Predict the products of electrolysis of a solution.
  • Plan and carry out an electrolysis investigation.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Predict the products from electrolysis.
  • (HT) Use half equations to predict products.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Describe examples of exothermic and endothermic reactions.
  • Explain, using observations from calorimetry, how to classify a reaction as exothermic or endothermic.
  • Explain in detail how to carry out a calorimetry experiment.
  • Explain how an energy change from a chemical reaction can be used.
  • Write balanced symbol equations for familiar reactions.
  • Label activation energy on a reaction profile diagram.
  • Generate a specific reaction profile diagram for a given chemical reaction when its energy change is also supplied.
  • (H) Identify bonds broken in reactants and new bonds made in products of a reaction.
  • Explain, using the particle model, how reactants become products in a chemical reaction.
  • Explain why bond breaking is endothermic and bond making is exothermic.
  • Define bond energy and identify all the bonds that break and are made in a chemical reaction.
  • Explain how a hydrogen fuel cell produces electricity.
  • List the advantages and disadvantages of hydrogen fuel cells.
  • Explain why hydrogen fuel cells are an alternative to rechargeable cells and batteries.
  • Explain how a hydrogen fuel cell produces electricity.
  • List the advantages and disadvantages of hydrogen fuel cells.
  • Explain why hydrogen fuel cells are an alternative to rechargeable cells and batteries.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Draw simple reaction profiles (energy level diagrams) for exothermic and endothermic reactions showing the relative energies of reactants and products, the activation energy and the overall energy change, with a curved line to show the energy as the reaction proceeds
  • Calculate the energy transferred in chemical reactions using bond energies supplied.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Explain how there can be different units for measuring rate of reaction.
  • Calculate the mean rate of reaction.
  • Calculate the rate of reaction at a specific time.
  • Use collision theory to explain how changing temperature alters the rate of reaction.
  • Calculate mean rates of reaction.
  • Use collision theory to explain how changing temperature alters the rate of reaction.
  • Calculate mean rates of reaction.
  • Use collision theory to explain how changing concentration or pressure alters the rate of reaction.
  • Calculate mean rates of reaction.
  • Explain how to change gas pressure.
  • Use collision theory to explain how adding a catalyst alters the rate of reaction.
  • Explain, with an example, the industrial use of a catalyst.
  • Calculate the mean rate of reaction.
  • Explain, using a familiar example, how a reaction can be reversible.
  • Describe a familiar reversible reaction using a balanced symbol equation.
  • Predict the observations of a familiar reversible reaction when the conditions are changed.
  • Explain why the energy change in a reversible reaction is exothermic in one direction and endothermic in the reverse direction.
  • Generate balanced symbol equations for reversible reactions from information provided.
  • Make predictive observations of familiar reversible reactions when information is supplied.
  • Describe how to achieve dynamic equilibrium.
  • Describe how the rate of the forward reaction compares to the rate of the backward reaction in a dynamic equilibrium.
  • (H) Describe Le Chatelier’s Principle.
  • Explain how changing conditions for a system at dynamic equilibrium affects the rate of the forward and reverse reactions.
  • Predict the effect on yield of changing temperature, concentration, or pressure in a given equilibrium system.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Use the equation rate of reaction = amount of product formed/time. Use the equation, rate of reaction = amount of reactant used/time. Calculate the mean rate of a reaction from given information about the quantity of a reactant used or the quantity of a product formed and the time taken.
  • Draw, and interpret, graphs showing the quantity of product formed or quantity of reactant used up against time

Energy and energy resources

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Describe a wide range of energy stores in different contexts.
  • Describe changes in energy stores in terms of the process that causes the change.
  • Use quantitative descriptions of changes in energy stores.
  • Apply the law of conservation of energy in straightforward situations.
  • Describe the changes in energy stores explaining why energy ceases to be useful.
  • Describe the energy changes in a range of experiments and account for energy dissipation to the surroundings.
  • Describe the action of frictional forces on objects and the associated heating effect.
  • Use the equation for work done to calculate distances or size of forces.
  • Use repeat values to measure the work done by a force experimentally.
  • Describe the effect of a different gravitational field strength on the gravitational potential energy store changes of a system.
  • Calculate the gravitational potential energy store of a system using the mass, gravitational field strength, and height.
  • Describe energy changes that involve a heating effect as opposed to movement of an object.
  • Calculate the kinetic energy store of an object.
  • Calculate the elastic potential energy store of a stretched spring.
  • Investigate the relationship between the energy stored in a spring and the kinetic energy store of an object launched from it.
  • Analyse energy changes to identify useful and less useful energy transfers.
  • Describe energy dissipation and how this reduces the capacity of a system to do work.
  • Investigate the factors that affect frictional forces.
  • Calculate the efficiency of a range of energy transfers.
  • Use the law of conservation of energy to explain why efficiency can never be greater than 100%.
  • Investigate the efficiency of a motor.
  • Rank electrical devices in terms of their power.
  • Compare mains-powered and battery-powered devices.
  • Describe the processes that waste energy in electrical devices.
  • Calculate the energy transferred by an electrical device.
  • Calculate the efficiency of a device from power ratings.
  • Find the wasted power of a device.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Use and rearrange the equation g . p . e . = mass × gravitational field strength × height
  • Recall and apply the kinetic and elastic energy calculations.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Analyse temperature change data to compare the thermal conductivity of materials.
  • Describe the changes in the behaviour of the particles in a material as the temperature of the material increases.
  • Apply understanding of thermal conductivity in reducing energy dissipation through the choice of appropriate insulating materials.
  • Describe the cooling of objects in terms of the rate of emission of radiation.
  • Describe how the rate of emission of radiation is related to the temperature of a body.
  • Describe the visible changes in an object’s emitted radiation as its temperature is increased.
  • Compare the emission of infrared radiation from different surfaces (such as shiny and dark).
  • Outline the evidence that changes in the concentration of atmospheric gases are the likely cause of global warming.
  • Describe the greenhouse effect in terms of absorption and emission of radiation.
  • Describe the effects of changing the factors involved in the equation.
  • Calculate the energy required to change the temperature of an object.
  • Measure the specific heat capacity of a material and find a mean value.
  • Describe how some design features used to reduce energy dissipation from a home work.
  • Compare home improvement features in terms of payback time.
  • Outline the operation of a fossil fuel burning power station.
  • Outline the operation of a nuclear power station.
  • Explain why biofuels are considered carbon neutral.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Use and rearrange the equation ∆ E = m c ∆ θ

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Outline the operation of a fossil fuel burning power station.
  • Outline the operation of a nuclear power station.
  • Explain why biofuels are considered carbon neutral.
  • Describe the operation of a wind farm.
  • Describe the operation of a hydroelectric system.
  • Suggest the most appropriate energy resource to use in a range of scenarios.
  • Compare and contrast the operation of solar cells (photovoltaic cells) with solar heating panels.
  • Describe the operation of a solar power tower.
  • Describe the operation of a geothermal power plant.
  • Describe the effects of acid rain and climate change.
  • Describe techniques to reduce the harmful products of burning fossil fuels.
  • Compare a wide range of energy resources in terms of advantages and disadvantages.
  • Use base load and start-up time data to explain why some power stations are in constant operation whereas others may be switched on and off.
  • Compare energy resources in terms of capital and operational costs.
  • Debate the construction of a power plant in the local area by using a wide range of information, much of which is provided.

Particles at work

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Compare the electrical properties of protons, neutrons, electrons, and ions.
  • Use the concept of electric fields to explain why charged objects interact.
  • Describe how objects become charged in terms of electron transfer.
  • Describe the operation of a variable resistor and a diode and their effects on current.
  • Calculate the charge transferred by a steady current in a given time.
  • Construct an electrical circuit and accurately measure the current.
  • Calculate the potential difference.
  • Calculate the resistance of a component.
  • Measure the effect of changing the length of a wire on its resistance in a controlled experiment.
  • Describe the resistance characteristics of a filament lamp.
  • Describe the characteristics of a diode and light-emitting diode.
  • Investigate the resistance characteristics of a thermistor and a LDR.
  • Find the potential difference across a component in a circuit by using the p.d. rule.
  • Calculate the current in a series circuit containing more than one resistor.
  • Investigate the resistance of series circuits with several components.
  • Measure the p.d. across parallel circuits and explain any discrepancies.
  • Describe the effect on the resistance in a circuit of adding a resistor in parallel.
  • Investigate the effect of adding resistors in parallel on the size of the current in a circuit.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Use the equation Q=It
  • Use the equation V=IR
  • Draw and recognise p.d. v current graphs for ohmic conductors, filament lamps and diodes.
  • Calculate resistance.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Describe the characteristics of the UK mains supply.
  • Compare a.c. traces in terms of period and amplitude (voltage).
  • Operate a cathode ray oscilloscope to display an a.c. trace.
  • Discuss the choices of materials used in cables and plugs in terms of their physical and electrical properties.
  • Describe why a short circuit inside a device presents a hazard.
  • Identify a variety of electrical hazards associated with plugs and sockets.
  • Calculate the power of systems.
  • Calculate the power of electrical devices.
  • Select an appropriate fuse for a device.
  • Calculate the charge transferred by a current in a given time.
  • Calculate the energy transferred by a charge passing through a potential difference.
  • Apply the law of conservation of energy in a circuit.
  • Calculate energy transfer in kilowatt-hours.
  • Convert between efficiencies stated in percentages and those stated in decimal forms.
  • Calculate the power rating of a device from the energy transferred and the time of operation.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Use the equation P=IV and P=I2R
  • Use the equation E=Pt and E=QV
  • Use the equations: efficiency = useful output energy transfer/ total input energy transfer
  • Efficiency may also be calculated using the equation: efficiency = useful power output/total power input

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Explain why some materials will float on water.
  • Calculate the density of materials.
  • Measure the density of a solid and a liquid.
  • Describe the arrangement of the particles in a solid, liquid, and gas.
  • Explain the behaviour of a material in terms of the arrangement of particles within it.
  • Describe the changes in behaviour of the particles in a material during changes of state.
  • State that the melting and boiling points of a pure substance are fixed.
  • Use the term ‘latent heat’ to describe the energy gained by a substance during heating for which there is no change in temperature.
  • Find the melting or boiling point of a substance by using a graphical technique.
  • Describe how the internal energy of an object can be increased by heating.
  • Describe how the behaviour of particles changes as the energy of a system increases.
  • Describe the energy changes by heating between objects within the same system.
  • Describe the changes in particle bonding during changes of state.
  • Calculate the latent heat of fusion and latent heat of vaporisation for a substance.
  • Measure the latent heat of fusion for water.
  • Describe the behaviour of particles in a gas as the gas is heated.
  • Outline Brownian motion and how this provides evidence for the particle nature of matter.
  • Describe the relationship between an increase in the temperature of a fixed volume of gas and the increase in pressure of the gas.
  • Describe how the pressure of a gas can change when it is compressed or allowed to expand.
  • Use the relationship pV = constant to calculate the constant.
  • (H) Explain why the temperature of a gas increases when it is compressed.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Use appropriate apparatus to make and record the measurements needed to determine the densities of regular and irregular solid objects and liquids. Volume should be determined from the dimensions of regularly shaped objects, and by a displacement technique for irregularly shaped objects. Dimensions to be measured using appropriate apparatus such as a ruler, micrometre or Vernier callipers.
  • Use and rearrange the equation E = m L

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Describe some safety precautions used when dealing with radioactive materials.
  • Describe how a Geiger counter can be used to detect radiation.
  • Identify natural and man-made sources of background radiation.
  • Calculate the number of neutrons in an isotope by using nuclear notation.
  • Describe the differences between isotopes.
  • Complete decay equations for alpha and beta decay.
  • Describe how the penetrating powers of radiation can be measured.
  • Describe the path of radiation types through a magnetic field.
  • Describe the process of ionisation.
  • (HT) Find the ratio of a sample remaining after a given number of half-lives.
  • (HT) State that all atoms of a particular isotope have an identical chance to decay in a fixed time.
  • (HT) Plot a graph showing the decay of a sample and use it to determine half-life.
  • Explain why alpha, beta, or gamma radiation is chosen for a particular medical application.
  • Describe how gamma rays can be used to destroy cancerous cells and the damage they may cause to healthy tissue.
  • Explain how precautions to reduce exposure to patients and medical staff work.
  • Describe induced nuclear fission in terms of neutron impacts and release.
  • Explain how an escalating induced fission reaction occurs.
  • Outline the function of the moderator, control rods, and coolant.
  • Outline the process of nuclear fusion.
  • Complete a nuclear equation showing simple fusion processes.
  • Describe the key design features of a nuclear fusion reactor.
  • Compare the risks and damage associated with alpha, beta, and gamma radiation.
  • Describe how damage caused by radioactive material can be reduced.
  • Discuss the difficulties associated with the handling and storage of nuclear waste.

Biological responses

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Define homeostasis
  • Define and explain the roles of receptors, coordination centres and effects.
  • Describe the pathway of impulses from receptor to effector.
  • Describe how information is passed along neurones.
  • Evaluate a method and describe how accuracy could be increased.
  • Describe how reflex actions are fast and automatic.
  • Describe the events involved in a reflex action.
  • Describe the function of synapses.
  • Describe the function of brain structures.
  • (HT) Describe how regions of the brain have been mapped to particular functions.
  • Choose the correct way to display data.
  • Relate the structures of the eye to their functions.
  • Describe how the eye focuses light.
  • Describe how the lens changes shape to focus on near or distant objects.
  • Describe how lenses and surgery can help with long and short sightedness.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Identify the position of the following on a diagram of the human body: pituitary gland, pancreas, thyroid, adrenal gland, ovary and testes.
  • Extract and interpret data from graphs, charts and tables, about the functioning of the nervous system.
  • Translate information about reaction times between numerical and graphical forms.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Explain why the pituitary gland is known as a ‘master gland’.
  • Describe the role of hormones released by endocrine glands.
  • Describe what happens when blood glucose levels become too high or too low.
  • Describe the difference in the causes of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes.
  • Explain why Type 1 diabetes is treated with insulin injections.
  • Explain how Type 2 diabetes can be treated by changes to diet and exercise.
  • Describe how the production of insulin for people with diabetes has developed over time.
  • Describe the function of adrenaline and thyroxine.
  • Interpret and explain diagrams of negative feedback control.
  • Compare and contrast the changes to boys and girls during puberty.
  • Name the hormones involved in the menstrual cycle.
  • Name the glands that produce the hormones oestrogen, progesterone, LH, and FSH.
  • Describe the function of the hormones that control the menstrual cycle..
  • Explain how contraceptives work.
  • List the advantages and disadvantages of different contraceptives.
  • Describe what is meant by infertility and suggest reasons for it.
  • Describe the steps used in IVF.
  • Outline the issues surrounding IVF.
  • Explain why plants need tropisms.
  • Use diagrams and descriptions to explain how plant shoots and roots respond to light and gravity.
  • Plan and carry out an investigation into the effect of light on plant growth, with limited guidance.
  • Describe some uses of plant hormones (gibberellins, ethene, and auxins) in agriculture, horticulture, and the food industry.
  • Observe the effects of plant hormones.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Evaluate information around the relationship between obesity and diabetes, and make recommendations taking into account social and ethical issues.
  • Be able to extract information and interpret data from graphs that show the effect of insulin in blood glucose levels in both people with diabetes and people without diabetes.
  • Interpret and explain simple diagrams of negative feedback control.
  • Show why issues around contraception cannot be answered by science alone.
  • Understand social and ethical issues associated with IVF treatments.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Describe how body temperature is monitored and controlled.
  • Describe the mechanisms that take place if body temperature is too high or too low.
  • Explain why the body needs to get rid of carbon dioxide, urea, excess ions, and water.
  • Describe how the body forms the waste products carbon dioxide and urea.
  • Describe the difference between urea and urine.
  • Describe the processes of filtering and selective reabsorption in the kidneys.
  • Suggest how the composition of the urine will change in given situations.
  • Describe the effect of ADH on the kidneys.
  • Use a diagram to show how kidney dialysis works.
  • List advantages and disadvantages of kidney dialysis.
  • Describe how a model is similar to kidney dialysis.
  • Explain why kidney donors can be living.
  • Compare the advantages and disadvantages of treating kidney failure using dialysis or kidney transplant.

Genetics and reproduction (B)

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Describe the differences between sexual reproduction.
  • Describe the advantages and disadvantages of sexual and asexual reproduction.
  • Design a model to show why variation is produced in offspring from sexual reproduction but not from asexual reproduction.
  • Describe the processes of meiosis and mitosis.
  • Explain how meiosis halves the number of chromosomes in gametes and fertilisation restores the full number.
  • Solve simple probability questions.
  • Describe how malarial parasites and fungi reproduce both asexually and sexually.
  • List the ways in which plants can reproduce asexually.
  • Describe the relationship between DNA, genes, and chromosomes.
  • Describe some of the benefits of studying the human genome.
  • Explain why genome projects are costly and take a long time.
  • Describe how the four bases make up a code.
  • Explain why the correct folding of a protein is important to its function.
  • Describe what a mutation is.
  • Explain why the correct folding of a protein is important to its function.
  • Use the terms allele, dominant, recessive, homozygous, and heterozygous correctly.
  • Describe a phenotype when given the genotype.
  • Carry out a genetic cross to show sex inheritance.
  • Use direct proportion and simple ratios to express the outcome of a genetic cross.
  • Name examples of inherited disorders, such as cystic fibrosis and polydactyly.
  • Use a genetic cross to explain how inherited disorders are passed on.
  • Outline the methods used to screen embryos.
  • List advantages and disadvantages of embryo screening.
  • List some examples of variation in plants and categorise these as being due to genetic causes, environmental causes, or both.
  • Suggest reasons why identical twins will start to show variation as they get older.
  • Use data to explain why studying identical twins helps scientists investigate which traits have genetic causes.
  • Describe the steps in the process of speciation.
  • Explain why there are species living on Madagascar that share some similarities with species found elsewhere.
  • Carry out research to describe other examples of speciation.
  • Explain the process of selective breeding.
  • Explain why humans have used selective breeding.
  • Explain what inbreeding is, and why it is a problem in dog breeding.
  • Describe the steps used in genetic engineering to produce GM organisms.
  • Analyse data to describe why growing GM crops may be beneficial to a farmer.
  • Describe the benefits for plant growers of reproduction using cuttings or tissue culture rather than seeds.
  • Describe how embryo transplants are undertaken, and why they produce clones.
  • Explain why the animal produced using adult cell cloning is a clone.
  • Design a flowchart to describe the process of adult cell cloning.
  • List some benefits and drawbacks of adult cell cloning.
  • Outline the potential benefits and risks of genetic engineering.
  • Describe economic and ethical concerns that people may have about cloning animals.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Compare mitosis to meiosis.
  • (HT) Use genetic cross diagrams to predict phenotypes.
  • Calculating ratios and percentages.
  • Predict the outcomes of selective breeding.
  • Evaluate the ethical issues associated with GM crops.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Discuss why the importance of Mendel’s work was not recognised until after his death.
  • Correctly order important discoveries in gene theory.
  • Compare and contrast Darwin and Lamarck’s theories of evolution.
  • Describe the theory of inheritance of acquired characteristics proposed by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck.
  • Design a storyboard to highlight important events that helped Darwin develop his theory.
  • Explain how finches on different islands evolved different-shaped beaks by natural selection.
  • Describe several reasons why most people did not accept Darwin’s theory when it was first published.
  • Explain why it was important that Darwin collected a variety of evidence.
  • Describe the steps in the process of speciation.
  • Explain why there are species living on Madagascar that share some similarities with species found elsewhere.
  • Carry out research to describe other examples of speciation.
  • Describe how fossils are formed.
  • Describe how fossils are evidence for evolution by natural selection.
  • Explain why the fossil record is not complete.
  • Describe how other organisms can cause an animal or plant to become extinct.
  • Suggest a hypothesis for why an organism became extinct.
  • Explain how fossil diagrams show how the horse has evolved.
  • Suggest the effects of an asteroid, comet, or meteorite strike on Earth.
  • Explain how environmental change can cause mass extinctions.
  • Identify strengths and weaknesses in two different theories of mass extinction.
  • Describe how antibiotic resistant bacteria evolve.
  • Explain why scientists need to develop new antibiotics.
  • Create an information sheet outlining important facts about antibiotic resistant bacteria to the public.
  • Describe the classification system developed by Carl Linnaeus, to include the order of the taxonomic groups.
  • Identify genus and species from a scientific name.
  • Explain why a binomial naming system is useful.
  • Describe how organisms are divided in the three-domain system.
  • Describe why the three-domain system was proposed.
  • Draw several conclusions from a simple evolutionary tree.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Use an evolutionary tree.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Define the terms community, population, habitat, ecosystem, abiotic factor, biotic factor.
  • Describe what a stable community is and give an example.
  • Suggest how one species relies on another.
  • Describe how a factor influences the distribution of organisms.
  • Record measurements of abiotic factors.
  • Explain how to use a quadrat and a transect to estimate population sizes.
  • Design a method to estimate a population using a sampling technique.
  • Calculate range, mean, median, and mode in order to analyse results.
  • Use information to suggest factors that animals are competing for in a given habitat.
  • Explain tactics that help an animal compete for a resource.
  • Describe how the distribution of a species has changed because of competition.
  • Suggest factors that plants are competing for in a given habitat.
  • Explain why plants use seed dispersal.
  • Describe the methods plants use to outcompete others or avoid competition.
  • Suggest features that an organism may have in order to survive in a given habitat.
  • Explain how adaptations allow an organism to survive in its habitat.
  • Classify adaptations as structural, behavioural, or functional.
  • Calculate surface area to volume ratio.
  • Describe how animals are adapted to live in hot, dry, and cold habitats.
  • Explain how a plant adaptation allows it to survive in its habitat.
  • Explain why plants need to reduce water loss by transpiration.
  • Display data using a graph and describe what it shows.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Identify producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, tertiary consumers, predators, and prey in a food web.
  • Describe what happens to a population in a food web when another population changes.
  • Plot data as a line graph and explain the pattern of predator and prey populations.
  • Explain why decomposers are important to a stable ecosystem.
  • Explain the importance of recycling substances.
  • Describe the events in the decay cycle.
  • Describe the events in the carbon cycle.
  • Explain why the carbon cycle is vital to life on Earth.
  • Write word equations for photosynthesis, respiration, and combustion.
  • Identify factors that speed up or slow down decay.
  • Choose a suitable dependent variable and plan a way to measure it accurately.
  • Plot a line graph with more than one line plotted on the same axes.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Describe how sewage, fertilisers, pesticides, and herbicides pollute the land and water.
  • Describe the processes of eutrophication and bioaccumulation.
  • Draw conclusions from data.
  • Describe why a good level of biodiversity is important to the future of the human species.
  • Describe some effects of human population growth.
  • Analyse and interpret data and information concerning human population growth.
  • Describe how acid rain is formed.
  • Plan an investigation to find out how acid rain affects the germination of seeds.
  • Choose a suitable method for analysing data.
  • Explain the effects of deforestation and peat removal.
  • Categorise reasons for and effects of deforestation as environmental, social, economic, and/or political.
  • Describe why there is a conflict between using peat to increase food production and the need to conserve peat bogs.
  • Use the terms greenhouse effect, global warming, and climate change correctly.
  • Describe in detail the biological consequences of global warming.
  • State some examples of environmental changes that affect the distribution of species in an ecosystem.
  • Explain how humans can cause environmental changes.
  • Describe an example of how environmental change has affected the distribution of a species.
  • Describe programmes to reduce negative effects on ecosystems and explain how they work.
  • Use information to explain the conflicting pressures on maintaining biodiversity.
  • Number the trophic levels in a food chain, food web, and pyramid of biomass.
  • Describe how decomposers feed.
  • Use data to draw a pyramid of biomass and explain what it shows.
  • Calculate the percentage of biomass passed between trophic levels.
  • Calculate the efficiency of transfers, with guidance.
  • Explain how the loss of biomass at each trophic level affects the number of organisms at each level.
  • Define sustainable food production and describe how it could help increase food security.
  • Explain how factors affect food security.
  • Present information based on research.
  • Explain why there could be more food for everyone if we ate less meat.
  • Explain why there are ethical objections to some factory farming techniques.
  • Explain how factory farming techniques increase rate of growth.
  • Describe the reasons why fish stocks in the oceans are decreasing.
  • Describe the techniques used to conserve fish stocks.
  • Describe how mycoprotein is produced.

Modules 4-5 – Ongoing specific revision of all prior topics

Module 6 – Exams

Rates, equilibrium and organic chemistry

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Describe the composition of crude oil.
  • State a definition of a hydrocarbon.
  • State a definition of an alkane.
  • Name the different fractions from crude oil.
  • State a use for each fraction from crude oil.
  • Define complete and incomplete combustion.
  • Write a word equation to describe the complete combustion of a hydrocarbon.
  • Write a word equation to describe the incomplete combustion of a hydrocarbon.
  • Define the process of cracking.
  • Generate a word equation to describe cracking.
  • Recognise and give examples of alkenes.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • State a definition of an alkene.
  • Name the first four alkenes.
  • State the product of a combustion and an addition reaction of an alkene.
  • Recognise the functional group in an alcohol and a carboxylic acid.
  • Name for the first four primary alcohols and the first four carboxylic acids.
  • Name ethyl ethanoate from its formula.
  • State that fermentation can be used to make ethanol.
  • List some chemical properties of the first four alcohols.
  • Recognise the formula and structure of ethanol and state some of its uses.
  • Recognise a carboxylic acid from its name or formula.
  • List some chemical properties of carboxylic acids.
  • Describe an ester and state some uses of this class of compounds.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Define a monomer and a polymer.
  • State some uses of poly(ethene) and poly(propene).
  • Write a word equation for the formation of poly(ethene) and poly(propene).
  • Describe condensation polymerisation.
  • Draw a simplified structure of the monomers for a condensation polymer when the structure of the polymer is given.
  • Draw a simplified structure of a condensation polymer when the structure of the monomers are given.
  • State an example of a natural polymer.
  • Describe the relationship between sugar as a monomer and starch or cellulose as a polymer.
  • Describe the relationship between amino acids as a monomer and protein as a polymer.
  • State that DNA is an example of a natural polymer.
  • State what DNA stands for.
  • Name the type of monomers used to make DNA.

Analysis and the Earth's Atmosphere

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Describe the difference between pure substances, impure substances, and formulations.
  • Explain how melting point and boiling point data can be used to determine the purity of a substance.
  • State uses of formulations.
  • Explain how chromatography separates solutes.
  • Calculate Rf values from given data.
  • Use a chromatogram to determine if a sample is pure or impure.
  • Explain why limewater turns milky when it reacts with carbon dioxide.
  • Interpret results to identify a gas that is present.
  • Explain why hydrogen ‘pops’ near a naked flame.
  • Identify a metal ion from the colour of a flame or the colour of the hydroxide precipitate.
  • Write balanced symbol equations, including state symbols, for the production of an insoluble metal hydroxide.
  • Explain why a flame test cannot be used to identify a mixture of metal solutions.
  • Identify the presence of carbonate, a specific halide, or sulphate ions from simple laboratory tests.
  • Write balanced symbol equations, including state symbols for the reactions in the simple laboratory tests for carbonate, halide, or sulphate ions.
  • Explain why it can be difficult to identify halides using this method.
  • Compare and contrast instrumental techniques with simple laboratory tests.
  • Describe the main processes of flame emission spectroscopy.
  • Explain how flame emission spectroscopy is an improvement on flame tests.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Use melting point and boiling point data to distinguish pure from impure substances.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • State the composition, including formulae, of the Earth’s early atmosphere.
  • Describe a theory for the development of the Earth’s atmosphere.
  • Explain, using word equations, how gases were formed in the atmosphere and how oceans were formed.
  • Describe how the proportion of carbon dioxide in the early atmosphere was reduced.
  • State the composition of dry air.
  • Use word equations to show how carbon dioxide can form sedimentary rocks.
  • Explain the greenhouse effect
  • Explain how greenhouse gases increase the temperature of the atmosphere.
  • Explain how human activity can change the proportion of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
  • Explain the possible effects of global climate change and why they are difficult to predict.
  • Explain possible methods to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Explain some of the problems in trying to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Explain how sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are made when fossil fuels are combusted.
  • Describe the health impacts of atmospheric pollutants.
  • Use balanced symbol equations to show how atmospheric pollutants are formed.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Analyse data on the atmospheric gases.
  • Evaluate evidence and data on the greenhouse effect
  • Compare and evaluate different methods of reducing greenhouse gases.
  • Explain the difference between complete and incomplete combustion using chemical equations.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Describe and classify a resource as finite or renewable when information is given.
  • Explain the use of natural, sustainable, and finite resources.
  • Interpret information from different formats including graphs, charts, tables, and prose.
  • Explain why the method of obtaining potable water depends on the local conditions.
  • Explain reasons for filtration and sterilisation in water treatment.
  • Describe and explain in detail how to safely distil salty water.
  • Explain why waste water should be treated before it is released into the environment.
  • Describe the main processes in sewage treatment.
  • Explain uses of sewage slurry.
  • Describe the processes of phytomining and bioleaching.
  • Write balanced symbol equations to explain metal extraction techniques.
  • Explain the need for new ways of extracting metals (in particular copper).
  • Explain the importance of LCA and how it can be misused.
  • Carry out LCAs for different products when data is supplied.
  • Explain the importance of reusing and recycling products.
  • Explain why some recycling can be difficult.
  • Evaluate ways of reducing the use of limited resources when information is given.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Calculate orders of magnitude
  • Evaluate the pros and cons of reverse osmosis and distillation

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Describe an experiment to investigate the conditions required for rusting to occur.
  • With the help of equations, describe the process of rusting.
  • Explain how different corrosion prevention techniques work.
  • Explain in detail why pure metals are often alloyed before they are used.
  • Describe how different amounts of carbon affect the properties of iron.
  • Identify an appropriate purpose for an alloy when given data on its properties.
  • Explain how thermosetting plastics and thermo-softening plastics are different in terms of structure and bonding.
  • Describe the different conditions used to make poly(ethene).
  • Explain how the structure of poly(ethene) affects its properties and therefore its uses.
  • Describe what a composite is.
  • Explain the difference between a composite and an advanced composite.
  • Compare quantitatively the physical properties of glass and clay ceramics, polymers, composites, and metals.
  • Describe how the raw materials are turned into the reactants for the Haber process.
  • Describe how the Haber process is a reversible reaction.
  • Describe the Haber process with the help of a balance symbol equation including state symbols.
  • Explain the effect of changing temperature on the yield of the Haber process.
  • Explain the effect of changing pressure on the yield of the Haber process.
  • Explain why the conditions used in the Haber process are a compromise.
  • Explain the importance of fertilisers for agriculture.
  • Describe in detail how fertilisers are produced in the laboratory.
  • Write balanced symbol equations for the reactions to make components of NPK fertilisers.
  • Describe production of fertilisers in industry.
  • Compare and contrast the industrial and laboratory production of fertilisers.

Modules 4-5 – Ongoing specific revision of all prior topics

Module 6 – Exams

Forces in action

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Draw a scale diagram to represent a single vector.
  • Categorise a wide range of quantities as either a vector or a scalar.
  • Compare a scalar and a similar vector and explain how these quantities are different.
  • Use scale diagrams to represent the sizes of forces acting on an object.
  • Describe the action of pairs of forces in a limited range of scenarios.
  • Investigate the effect of different lubricants on the size of frictional forces.
  • Draw a scaled diagram of the forces acting in a range of situations using arrows to represent the forces.
  • (HT) Calculate resultant force produced by several forces acting on an object in coplanar directions.
  • Describe the effect of zero and non-zero resultant forces on the motion of moving and stationary objects.
  • Describe the action of levers being used as force multipliers.
  • Describe the action of a pair of gears in terms of increasing or decreasing the size of forces.
  • Investigate the action of a set of two gears.
  • Describe the action of levers being used as force multipliers.
  • Describe the action of a pair of gears in terms of increasing or decreasing the size of forces.
  • Investigate the action of a set of two gears.
  • Describe an experimental technique to determine the centre of mass of an object.
  • Explain why a suspended object comes to rest with the centre of mass directly below the point of suspension in terms of balanced forces.
  • Compare the stability of objects to the position of their centre of mass.
  • Use calculation of moments to determine if a seesaw is in equilibrium.
  • Apply the principle of moments to determine if an object is in equilibrium.
  • Establish the possible range of uncertainty of a weight using repeat values.
  • Find the resultant of two forces at an acute angle by drawing a scale diagram.
  • Describe a system in equilibrium in which non-parallel forces are acting.
  • Calculate the component of a force using scale diagrams and ratios.
  • Resolve a single force into two perpendicular components.
  • Determine if an object is in equilibrium by considering the horizontal and vertical forces.
  • Investigate the effect of increasing the weight of an object on a slope on the component of the weight acting along the slope.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Calculate the resultant of two forces that act in a straight line.
  • Use vector diagrams to illustrate resolution of forces, equilibrium situations and determine the resultant of two forces, to include both magnitude and direction (scale drawings only).
  • Use vector diagrams to illustrate resolution of forces, equilibrium situations and determine the resultant of two forces, to include both magnitude and direction (scale drawings only).

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Use the gradients of distance–time graphs to compare the speeds of objects.
  • Describe the motion of an object by interpreting distance–time graphs.
  • Calculate the speed of an object and the time taken to travel a given distance.
  • Identify the features of a velocity–time graph.
  • Rearrange the acceleration equation in calculations.
  • Calculate the change in velocity for an object under constant acceleration for a given period of time.
  • Describe sections of velocity–time graphs, and compare the acceleration in these sections.
  • Calculate the distance travelled using information taken from a velocity–time graph for one section of motion.
  • Use a series of repeat measurements to find an accurate measurement of the acceleration of a moving object.
  • Calculate the speed of an object by extracting data from a distance–time graph.
  • (HT) Use a tangent to determine the speed of an object from a distance–time graph.
  • Use the equation v2 − u2 = 2as in calculations where the initial or final velocity is zero.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Draw distance–time graphs from measurements and extract and interpret lines and slopes of distance–time graphs, translating information between graphical and numerical form.
  • Recall and apply the acceleration equation. Draw velocity–time graphs from measurements and interpret lines and slopes to determine acceleration
  • Draw velocity–time graphs from measurements and interpret lines and slopes to determine acceleration.
  • (HT) Interpret enclosed areas in velocity–time graphs to determine distance travelled (or displacement). 
  • (HT) measure, when appropriate, the area under a velocity–time graph by counting squares.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Describe the effect of changing the mass or the force acting on an object on the acceleration of that object.
  • Perform calculations involving the rearrangement of the F = ma equation.
  • Combine separate experimental conclusions to form an overall conclusion.
  • Calculate the weight of objects using their mass and the gravitational field strength.
  • Apply the concept of balanced forces to explain why an object falling through a fluid will reach a terminal velocity.
  • Investigate the relationship between the mass of an object and the terminal velocity.
  • Categorise factors which affect thinking distance, braking distance, and both.
  • Calculate the braking distance of a car.
  • Describe the relationship between speed and both thinking and braking distance.
  • Apply the equation p = mv to find the momentum, velocity or mass of an object.
  • Describe how the principle of conservation of momentum can be used to find the velocities of objects.
  • Investigate the behaviour of objects during explosions to verify the conservation of momentum.
  • Apply the law of conservation of momentum to find the momentum before and after impacts.
  • Calculate the momentum of a combination of objects after an impact.
  • Evaluate data used to verify the law of conservation of momentum.
  • Describe the operation of some safety features of a car in simple terms.
  • Report on the differences in safety features between expensive and inexpensive cars.
  • Describe the operation of some safety features of a car in simple terms.
  • Report on the differences in safety features between expensive and inexpensive cars.
  • Explain the limitations of Hooke’s law including the limit of proportionality.
  • Calculate the force required to cause a given extension in a spring using the spring constant.
  • Compare the behaviour of different materials under loads in terms of proportional and non-proportional behaviour.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Recall and apply the momentum equation.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Describe the effect on the pressure of changing the area of contact or weight acting on a surface.
  • Calculate forces or areas of contact.
  • Use SI prefixes in expressions for pressure as appropriate.
  • Use the concept of force, mass, and volume to explain why the pressure increases with depth in a liquid.
  • Calculate the pressure at a point in a liquid using p = h ρ g.
  • Calculate the forces produced by pressure differences.
  • Describe the change in pressure at different heights.
  • (H) Use the equation p = hρg to determine pressure in a fluid.
  • Describe the relationship between upthrust and weight for floating and submerged objects.
  • Compare the density of an object with the density of a liquid to determine whether or not the object will float.
  • Plan an investigation into the relationship between the average density of an object and the distance it submerges.

Waves, electromagnetism and space

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Investigate wave motion through a spring model.
  • Compare transverse and longitudinal waves in terms of direction of vibration and propagation.
  • Compare electromagnetic and mechanical waves in terms of the need for a medium.
  • Outline the derivation of the wave speed equation.
  • Calculate the period of a wave from its frequency.
  • Calculate the wave speed from the frequency and wavelength.
  • Describe refraction at a boundary in terms of wavefronts.
  • Describe refraction including the reflected rays.
  • Explain partial absorption as a decrease in the amplitude of a wave and therefore the energy carried.
  • Measure the speed of a wave in a solid (string).
  • Describe the effect that changing the frequency of a wave has on its wavelength in a medium.
  • Calculate the speed of waves using the wave speed equation.
  • Describe the properties of a sound in terms of amplitude and frequency.
  • Identify the range of frequencies that humans can hear.
  • Measure the frequency of a sound wave using an oscilloscope and the relationship frequency = 1 / period
  • Compare ultrasound and audible sound waves in terms of frequency.
  • Outline some uses of ultrasound in distance measurement.
  • Describe the operation of an ultrasound transducer in terms of partial reflection.
  • Describe the internal structure of the Earth.
  • Compare the three types of seismic waves (P, S, L) in terms of the speed they travel and whether they are transverse or longitudinal.
  • Describe the operation of a seismometer.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Use and rearrange the equation period = 1/frequency
  • Use and rearrange the equation wave speed = frequency × wavelength
  • Compare the properties of different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum.
  • Convert 1000 millisieverts (mSv) = 1 sievert (Sv)

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Describe the relationship between the energy being transferred by an electromagnetic wave and the frequency of the wave.
  • Calculate the frequency and the wavelength of an electromagnetic wave.
  • Explain why the range of wavelengths detected by the human eye is limited.
  • Describe how a range of electromagnetic waves are used in a variety of scenarios.
  • (H) Explain why a particular wave is suited to its application.
  • Plan an investigation into the rate of cooling of infrared radiation.
  • Describe the penetrating powers of gamma rays, X-rays, and ultraviolet rays.
  • Compare X-rays and gamma radiation in terms of their origin.
  • Describe the ionisation of atoms in simple terms.
  • Describe the penetrating powers of gamma rays, X-rays, and ultraviolet rays.
  • Compare X-rays and gamma radiation in terms of their origin.
  • Describe the ionisation of atoms in simple terms.
  • Describe the operation of an X-ray machine.
  • Explain why contrast media can be used during X-rays.
  • Describe the factors that affect the radiation doses received by people.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Compare the properties and uses of different electromagnetic waves
  • Draw conclusions from given data about the risks and consequences of exposure to radiation.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Construct accurate ray diagrams showing the reflection of light rays.
  • Explain why some surfaces form images during reflection but others do not.
  • Investigate the formation of images in mirrors.
  • Construct a ray diagram showing the refraction of a ray of light at a boundary between two different media.
  • Describe the dispersion of white light as it passes through a prism.
  • Investigate the refraction of light through a glass or Perspex block.
  • Describe the colours of objects in different colours of light.
  • Describe the reflection of a ray of light from a smooth or rough surface.
  • Determine the appearance of a white object when illuminated by combinations of primary coloured light.
  • Identify real and virtual images by using ray diagrams.
  • Calculate the magnification of a lens based on object and image size.
  • Investigate the image-forming properties of a converging lens.
  • With support, construct ray diagrams showing the formation of images by a convex lens and a concave lens.
  • Describe the image formed by a magnifying glass.
  • Describe the image formed by a camera lens.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Sketch the shape of a magnetic field around a bar magnet.
  • Describe how the shape of a magnetic field can be investigated.
  • Compare the Earth’s magnetic field to that of a bar magnet.
  • Use the corkscrew rule to determine the direction of the field around a current-carrying wire.
  • Describe the shape of the field produced by a solenoid.
  • Describe the factors that affect the strength or direction of the magnetic field around a wire and solenoid.
  • Describe the structure of an electromagnet in simple terms.
  • Describe the operation of simple devices that use electromagnets.
  • Investigate the factors that affect the strength of an electromagnet.
  • Describe how the force acting on a wire due to the motor effect can be increased.
  • Apply Fleming’s left-hand rule to determine the direction of the force acting on a conductor.
  • Calculate the force acting on a conductor when it is placed in a magnetic field.
  • Describe electromagnetic induction in a wire.
  • Identify the factors that affect the size of an induced current in a wire.
  • Identify the direction of current induced in a solenoid.
  • Describe the operation of an alternator, moving-coil microphone and loudspeaker in simple terms.
  • Describe the operation of a d.c. generator.
  • Identify the period and peak output voltage for generators from an oscilloscope trace.
  • Describe the structure of a transformer.
  • Describe the operation of a transformer in simple terms.
  • Explain why transformers only operate with alternating currents.
  • Use the transformer equation to calculate input or output voltages for a transformer.
  • Calculate the secondary current in a transformer.
  • Measure the efficiency of a transformer.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Draw the magnetic field pattern of a bar magnet showing how strength and direction change from one point to another

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Describe the formation of a protostar and planets.
  • Explain why a star radiates light in terms of nuclear fusion.
  • Describe how evidence for the early Solar System is gathered.
  • Compare the life cycle of small and large stars, identifying the names of the stages.
  • Describe the formation of ‘light’ elements by stars in their main sequence.
  • Describe the forces that are acting when a star is in its main sequence.
  • (HT) State that, for a greater radius of orbit, the object must travel at a slower speed and orbit in a longer period.
  • (HT)Describe the forces acting on an object that cause it to travel in a circular path.
  • (HT) Describe the different orbits of a variety of satellites.
  • Describe how the frequency or wavelength of a wave can be altered by the movement of the source through the Doppler effect.
  • Compare galaxies in terms of their red-shift and distance from us.
  • State that all galaxies are moving away from each other and that this shows the universe is expanding.
  • Discuss why scientists were initially reluctant to accept the Big Bang model.
  • Describe the origin of the CMBR.
  • Describe changes in the universe from the time of the Big Bang to the present day.

Modules 4-5 – Ongoing specific revision of all prior topics

Module 6 – Exams