Geography

back to ks3 subjects

ks3 geography

In an increasingly complex world, students should be aware of how they have been shaped. We are shaped by our pasts, learning from others’ experiences. We are shaped by our location and how society has developed. We are shaped by our planet. We are shaped by our beliefs and ideas.

Subjects in Individuals and Societies follow sequences of lessons that, through repeated exposure and clear linking, ensure students are able to retain key declarative knowledge and abstract concepts such as monarchy and location. They embed and develop the key procedural skills of the discipline, allowing them to analyse, explain, describe and critically assess.

In Geography we seek to highlight the importance not only of learning well-sequenced geographical content, but of learning geography as a discipline. We ensure that students learn about the purposes of geography, how geographers think, about the methods geographers use to create valuable insights about the world and the range of ideas and perspectives that make geography a truly global subject.

MYP Assessment Criteria

Criterion A

Knowledge & Understanding

Criterion B

Research

Criterion C

Communication

Criterion D

Critical Thinking

General Principle (Statement of Inquiry)

People’s place in the world can be described using patterns and trends at different scales.

Links to prior learning

Students will build on previous knowledge from primary school, regarding human and physical geography. Students will also build on UK geographical knowledge. Consolidating knowledge of local area/UK and learning about the physical geography of it. Students will apply basic map skills introduced at primary school, and build on their map skills by using OS maps, contour lines and grid referencing.

Link to assessment

A, C and D

Common misconceptions or errors following assessment?

Students are still finding 6 figure references an issue and understanding the Tees Exe line.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • What is physical/human/environmental geography?
  • What is the relief of the UK?
  • What is the physical geography of the UK?
  • How does Relief impact human development patterns?
  • How do we show height on a map?
  • How can I interpret OS Maps?
  • What is the geology of the UK?

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Use our atlas skills to find the physical and human features of the UK.
  • Find a 4 figure and 6 figure grid reference
  • Interpret contour lines on an OS map
  • Interpret an OS map of the local area.
  • Using google earth to investigate and understand the local area.

General Principle (Statement of Inquiry)

People’s place in the world can be described using patterns and trends at different scales.

Links to prior learning

Students will apply basic map skills introduced in module 1, within module 2 when looking at OS maps, contour lines and grid referencing. They will develop and build their scientific investigation skills during a local fieldwork investigation.

Link to assessment

A, B, C and D

Common misconceptions or errors following assessment?

Students are still finding 6 figure references an issue/ Understanding the Tees Exe line.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • What is a grid reference?
  • Why are 6 figure grid references more accurate than 4 figure references?
  • How can I read contour lines?
  • How can I represent relief on a map?
  • How can I Interpret OS maps of my local area?
  • What is Google Earth used for?

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Find a 4 figure and 6 figure grid reference
  • Interpret contour lines on an OS map
  • Interpret an OS map of the local area
  • Use fieldwork skills to conduct a study of the local area.

General Principle (Statement of Inquiry)

Population structures produce specific patterns and trends due to fairness, development and cultural change.

Links to prior learning

Students to continue developing their knowledge of space and place ( with Atlas skills) by linking their knowledge with the current topic (module 1/2). Students are further development their inquiry and critical thinking skills (developed in Module 2) by analysing sources.

Link to assessment

A, B, C and D

Common misconceptions or errors following assessment?

 

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • How can we define ‘population’?
  • What is an ‘aging population’?
  • What is population density? (UK cities)
  • What causes population to change? (LICs VS HICS)
  • How do we measure population structure? (UK vs Kenya)
  • What changes will development make to the population?
  • What is a push and pull factor?

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Defining population and looking at patterns of where populations live
  • Analysis of population pyramids and using skills to develop an understanding of them
  • Looking at historic population patterns and understanding how different factors change them
  • Links to OS map skills for UK.

General Principle (Statement of Inquiry)

Tourism is an important cultural industry which celebrates diversity through personal and cultural expression.

Links to prior learning

Students continue to develop understanding of space and place through location studies. Students to grow in their understanding of culture and diversity, linking to Module 1 (diversity in London).

Link to assessment

A, B and C

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • What is tourism?
  • What is tourism like in the UK?
  • Fieldwork project
  • Why is tourism important for the economy?
  • What is tourism like in Spain Vs Haiti?
  • What is ecotourism?
  • Why is ecotourism important in Kenya?

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Students continue to develop their understanding of place using atlas and map skills to describe various local and global locations
  • Development of knowledge of diversity and culture through different case studies
  • Development of critical thinking skills to analyse sources.

General Principle (Statement of Inquiry)

Ecosystems are processes that produce relationships which should be developed and maintained through fairness and development.

Links to prior learning

Students are further developing their interpretation and inquiry skills (fieldwork study) from module 2, within module 4 when investigating ecosytems. Students also learn to develop their empathy as learners, when looking at and developing their knowledge of the rainforest.

Link to assessment

A, B and C

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • What is an ecosystem?
  • What is a foodchain/ food web?
  • What are global ecosystems?
  • What is the structure of rainforest?
  • What are the components of the rainforest? (climate/soils/plants+animals)
  • What is the nutrient cycle?
  • What are the threats to the rainforest?

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Interpret food chains and food webs
  • Annotate the rainforest structure
  • Recall the components of a rainforest
  • Recall the threats to the rainforest
  • Develop essay writing skills.

General Principle (Statement of Inquiry)

 

Links to prior learning

 

Link to assessment

 

Common misconceptions or errors following assessment?

 

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  •  

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  •  

General Principle (Statement of Inquiry)

The Physical geography of the UK is governed by systems and processes which can be monitored through scientific and technical innovation.

Links to prior learning

Students will begin to build upon their knowledge of the UK, learning about different landscapes. They will use OS map skills to be able to map out and understand relief in certain areas of the UK.

Link to assessment

A and C

Common misconceptions or errors following assessment?

 

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • What is a landscape?
  • Why are landscapes important?
  • What is an urban landscape?
  • What are landscape processes?
  • How can I define coastal/River/ mountainous landscapes?

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Continue to use OS map skills to understand different types of environments
  • Understanding the rock cycle and how this has impacted the formation of the world
  • Investigating different landscapes including: coastal, River and mountainous.

General Principle (Statement of Inquiry)

Individuals understand the process which leads to hazards creating change, which is controlled through scientific and technical innovation.

Links to prior learning

Students will build on prior knowledge of continents and oceans to be able to establish which are oceanic and continental crust/plates.

Link to assessment

A and C

Common misconceptions or errors following assessment?

Students are unsure of how tectonic plates move. Students can not recall the different types of plates correctly.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • What is the structure of the earth?
  • What is the historic evidence for Plate tectonics (Wegener and Hess)
  • What are the different plate boundaries?
  • How do tectonic plates move?
  • What are the different hazards formed at plate boundaries?
  • What is the distribution and formation of volcanoes and earthquakes?

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Recall the layers of the earth from inside to out (and vice versa), 2 types of crust (oceanic and continental), learn the names of at least 7 of the tectonic plates and be able to locate them on a map.
  • Recall the 4 types of plate boundaries and what happens at each type of boundary. Describe and explain how plates move.

General Principle (Statement of Inquiry)

Individuals understand the process which leads to hazards creating change, which is controlled through scientific and technical innovation.

Links to prior learning

Students will build on and develop map skills which they have used since Year 7, in modules 1-3 within module 1 year 8 in regards to distribution of earthquakes and volcanoes.

Link to assessment

A,B, C and D

Common misconceptions or errors following assessment?

Students can not explain in detail specific case study elements (Eg: Social effects of the Nepalese earthquake).

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • What is it like living with hazard risk?
  • How can we reduce the risk of hazards?
  • How can we manage hazard risk (Volcanoes and earthquakes)?
  • How can I write a constructive essay?

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Recall and draw plate margins/ recall the distribution of earthquakes and volcanoes on a map
  • Recall the effects of earthquakes and volcanoes.
  • Write a constructive essay.

General Principle (Statement of Inquiry)

The processes of development and migration have formed patterns and trends which are different according to identities and relationships.

Links to prior learning

Students will use map skills, acquired in year 7 within modules 1-3 to locate Brazil and the Favelas. They’re also using previously recalled knowledge of Brazil/the environment and crime.

Link to assessment

A, B and D

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  •  

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Use an atlas to locate places with high and low urbanisation rates/ Define rural-urban migration
  • Recall the social and economic challenges faced in Rio
  • Recall ways to improve quality of life for LIC case study (Vs HIC case study).

General Principle (Statement of Inquiry)

Cultures are developed and maintained through personal and cultural expressions, but changed through disparity and equity.

Links to prior learning

Students will apply basic map skills to locate physical features found in Africa. They should be able to name and identify all of the countries that we will study, along the Niles path. Students to continue to Use inquiry skills (developed from Year 7, Module 2) to analyse and develop understanding of issues faced by those living near the river.

Link to assessment

A and B

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • What is the physical geography of Africa?
  • How is Africa perceived by the World?
  • What is the journey of the Nile from source to mouth?
  • Why is the Nile an important resource? (a study of Uganda, Ethiopia, Sudan and Egypt)

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Use an atlas to locate and describe Africa
  • Recall physical features found in Africa
  • Learning about the journey of a river, and its characteristics
  • Developing understanding of different countries reliance on The Nile river.

General Principle (Statement of Inquiry)

River systems and processes can be monitored using scientific and technical innovation.

Links to prior learning

Students will build on prior knowledge of continents and oceans (development of atlas skills). Students to continue to develop knowledge of rivers and physical landscapes in the UK (Module 3 of Year 7).

Link to assessment

A, C and D

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • What are the river erosion processes?
  • What are the river deposition processes?
  • What are the river Landforms?
  • Why are areas at risk of flooding? (case study).

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Recall River erosion processes
  • Recall river deposition processes
  • Recall and draw river landforms
  • Know the different river management strategies used.

General Principle (Statement of Inquiry)

The Management and intervention of earth’s resources and systems leads to a globalized, sustainable world.

Links to prior learning

Students to develop prior knowledge of sustainability from Module 2 of Year 7 and Module 4 of Year 8.

Link to assessment

A,B, C and D

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • What are natural resources?
  • How do we use the earth’s natural resources?
  • What is the structure of the earth’s atmosphere?
  • How can we be more sustainable as a planet?
  • What are the links to climate change?

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Develop understanding of what a natural resource is/ Understanding the structure of earth’s atmosphere
  • Understanding how humans can use the earth’s resources more sustainably.

General Principle (Statement of Inquiry)

Individuals comprehend the causality of extreme weather systems, leading to scientific and technical innovation.

Links to prior learning

Students will re-visit map skills, especially lines of latitude and how the temperature changes further away from the equator.

Link to assessment

A and B

Common misconceptions or errors following assessment?

Students are struggling to recall where tropical storms are located, and distributed.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • What is the difference between weather and climate?
  • What is extreme weather?
  • What effects does extreme weather have on populations?
  • What is climate change?
  • What is the correlation between extreme weather and climate change?
  • Where are tropical storms distributed?
  • How do tropical storms form?
  • Typhoon Haiyan case study/ Storm Ciara 2020.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Recall map skills (Year 7, Mod 1+2), climate zones and the factors which influence weather and climate (recap quiz)
  • Developing my research based skills, by looking at an extreme weather event case study.

General Principle (Statement of Inquiry)

Individuals comprehend the causality of extreme weather sytems, leading to scientific and technical innovation.

Links to prior learning

Students will re-visit map skills, especially lines of latitude and how the temperature changes further away from the equator.

Link to assessment

A and D

Common misconceptions or errors following assessment?

Students are struggling to recall the short term and long term responses of extreme weather hazards.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • What extreme weather does the UK experience?
  • Why does the UK experience extreme weather?
  • Why is the UK’s weather so varied?
  • How does extreme weather affect the UK?
  • What is the atmospheric circulation model?

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Recall map skills (Year 7, Mod 1+2)
  • Developing my research based skills, by looking at an extreme weather event case study.

General Principle (Statement of Inquiry)

Fairness and development is formed and changed through power, patterns and trends.

Links to prior learning

Students will continue to develop their map skills, as well as place knowledge. They will use previous knowledge of continents and countries (especially in Africa) to locate trends and patterns in scales of development.

Link to assessment

B and D

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • What is development?
  • How do we define development?
  • How do we measure development?
  • What are the forms of aid?
  • Why do we use aid?
  • Is trade really fair? (fairtrade)
  • What is uneven development?
  • What are the causes of uneven development?

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Use map skills to identify countries in different stages of development.
  • Students should be able to use math skills to interpret graphs to compare countries using different development indicators.
  • Students should be able to effectively answer exam style questions in regards to development.

General Principle (Statement of Inquiry)

Cultures are developed and maintained through personal and cultural expressions, but changed through disparity and equity.

Links to prior learning

Students will apply basic map skills to locate physical features found in China. They should be able to name and remember key geographical features such famous mountain ranges, rivers and cities in China. They should be able to recall what the 6 different climate zones are and describe the climate of China.

Link to assessment

A and C

Common misconceptions or errors following assessment?

 

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Where is China?
  • What are the physical and human characteristics of China?
  • How has China developed?
  • What are the causes, effects and solutions to air pollution?
  • How did China control population growth?
  • What is the North-South water transfer project?

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Use map skills (Year 7, Mod 1+2) to describe and locate China
  • Use GCSE graph analysis to identify patterns and trends
  • Recall key terms related to Urban environments (Year 8, Mod 4).

General Principle (Statement of Inquiry)

Coastal systems and processes can be monitored using scientific and technical innovation.

Links to prior learning

Students will build on global/ scientific investigation skills acquired in Year 7 to learn about the different coastal processes and impacts of coastal management.

Link to assessment

A and C

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • What is a coastline?
  • What are the erosional features of a coastline?
  • What are the different systems connected to coastline formation?
  • What is the relationship between coast and human populations?
  • is hard engineering better than soft engineering in preventing coastal erosion?

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Recall what a coastline is
  • Recall and explain the different types of weathering and erosion (and how they occur)
  • Understand and explain the different coastal erosional and depositional landforms
  • Explain the difference between hard and soft engineering.

General Principle (Statement of Inquiry)

India is one of the most diverse and dynamic countries on the planet. We will look at how extreme disparities in wealth, diverse landscapes and rapidly developing societies are shaping India’s future.

Links to prior learning

Students will develop and build on map skills (module 1 and 2 of year 7), as well as confidently locating physical Characteristics and features (using previous skills built in year 7 module 3).Students will develop their understanding of development levels and what challenges and opportunities this creates for the people who live there. Students will also develop their understanding of megacities, using Mumbai as a case study.

Link to assessment

A, B, C and D

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Where is India located?
  • Why is the India an important global location?
  • What is the physical geography of India like?
  • Why are there huge disparities of wealth in India?
  • Why does India need a range of different strategies?
  • How has the megacity of Mumbai developed since 1990?

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Use of map skills to develop knowledge of unknown areas and locations in the world
  • Developing the understanding what they physical geography of India is like, comparing it to other physical landscapes that students have previously known
  • Using inquiry skills to build and develop understanding of development in India and the history behind this.

Click on the links below to view the videos and resources for the extension activities.

Modules 1 & 2

Read
An introduction to maps

Module 3

Read
The UK and Extreme Weather Events

Module 4

Watch
Population and Migration

Click on the links below to view the videos and resources for the extension activities.

Modules 1 & 2

Read
The challenges of natural hazards

Module 3

Read
Population Growth in Rio de Janeiro

Module 4

Watch
7 Principles for Building Better Cities

Click on the links below to view the videos and resources for the extension activities.

Modules 1 & 2

Read
Extreme weather on Earth

Module 3

Read
Why are Glaciers and Sea Ice melting?

Module 4

Watch
Globalisation: Winners and Losers in World Trade

back to ks4 subjects

ks4 geography

link to specification

Link to prior learning

  • Key Atlas skills (being effectively using own understanding to locate places on a map eg: with a key).
  • Key OS map skills 
  • A revision of key terms including: relief, river landscapes, erosion, deposition and transportation.
  • Recognising how coastal landscapes/ river landscapes are shaped through weathering and erosion.
  • Identifying key features of both coast and river landscapes.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Earth’s layered structure (including the asthenosphere), with different composition and physical properties (temperature, density, composition, physical state)
  • How the core’s internal heat source (through radioactive decay) generates convection, the key foundation for plate motion. Distribution and characteristics of the three plate boundary types (conservative, convergent and divergent) and hotspots.
  • Causes of contrasting volcanic (volcano type, magma type/lava flows and explosivity) and earthquake hazards, including tsunami (shallow/deep, magnitude).
  • Primary and secondary impacts of earthquakes or volcanoes on property and people in a developed and emerging or developing country.
  • Management of volcanic or earthquake hazards, in a developed and emerging or developing country including short-term relief (shelter and supplies) and long-term planning (trained and funded emergency services), preparation (warning and evacuation; building design) and prediction.

     

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Can I explain Earth’s layered structure, and how its physical properties are key to plate tectonics?
  • Can I identify the different plate boundaries, each with characteristic volcanic and earthquake hazards?
  • Can I explain how tectonic hazards affect people, and are managed, differently at contrasting locations?
  • Can I interpret a cross-section of the Earth?
  • Can I use and interpretation of world map showing distribution of plate boundaries and plates?
  • Can I use the Richter Scale to compare magnitude of earthquake events
  • Can I use social media sources, satellite images and socio-economic data to assess impact?

Link to prior learning

  • Key Atlas skills (being effectively using own understanding to locate places on a map eg: with a key).
  • Key OS map skills
  • A revision of key terms including: Food Web, food chain, nutrient cycle,. 
  • Recognising how plants and animals are adapted in small scale and larger scale ecosystems.
  • Identifying key features of both small scale ecosystems, and larger scale ecosystems (biomes).

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • The global atmospheric circulation and how circulation cells and ocean currents transfer and redistribute heat energy around the Earth.
  • How global atmospheric circulation determines the location of arid (high pressure) and high rainfall (low pressure) areas.
  • The natural causes of climate change and how they explain past climate change events: asteroid collisions, orbital changes, volcanic activity, variations in solar output.
  • Characteristics (pressure, rotation, structure) and seasonal global distribution of tropical cyclones (hurricanes and typhoons) including source areas and tracks and how these change over time.
  • How the global circulation of the atmosphere leads to tropical cyclones in source areas, reasons why some tropical cyclones intensify and their dissipation.
  • Physical hazards of tropical cyclones (high winds, intense rainfall, storm surges, coastal flooding, landslides) and their impact on people and environments.
  • Why some countries are more vulnerable (physically, socially and economically) than others to the impacts of tropical cyclones.
  • How countries can prepare for, and respond to, tropical cyclones: weather forecasting, satellite technology, warning and evacuation strategies, storm-surge defences.
  • The effectiveness of these methods of preparation and response in one developed country and in one developing or emerging country.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Can I can explain how the atmosphere operates as a global system which transfers heat around the Earth?
  • Can I evaluate how climate has changed in the past through natural causes on timescales ranging from hundreds to millions of years?
  • Can I explain how Global climate is now changing as a result of human activity, and there is uncertainty about future climates?
  • Can I use and interpret climate graphs?
  • Can I use/interpret line graphs/ bar charts showing climate change?

Link to prior learning

  • Key Atlas skills (being effectively using own understanding to locate places on a map eg: with a key).
  • Key OS map skills
  • A revision of key terms including: natural hazard, climate change, volcano, earthquake, disruption, plate margin.
  • Recognising how natural hazards are formed
  • Identifying key features of both tectonic and weather hazards.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Contrasting ways of defining development (economic criteria and broader social and political measure) and measuring
    development (Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita, the Human Development Index (HDI), measures of inequality and
    indices of political corruption).
  • How countries at different levels of development (developing, emerging and developed) have differences in their demographic data (fertility rates, death rates, population structures, maternal and infant mortality rates).
  • The causes and consequences of global inequalities; social (education, health), historical (colonialism, neo-colonialism), environmental (climate, topography), economic and political (systems of governance, international relations)
  • How Rostow’s modernisation theory and Frank’s dependency theory can be used to explain how and why countries develop over time.
  • Characteristics of top-down and bottom-up strategies in terms of their scale, aims, funding and technology.
  • The processes and players (transnational corporations (TNCs), governments) contributing to globalisation and why some countries have benefitted more than others.
  • Advantages and disadvantages of different approaches to development: Non-governmental organisation-led (NGO-led) intermediate technology, Inter-governmental organisation (IGO)-funded large infrastructure and investment by TNCs.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • To be able to recall information from modules 1-3.
  • To be able to affectively recall information about natural hazards (including distribution and causes of).
  • To be able to use map skills to analyse and describe the distribution of natural hazards.
  • Linking prior knowledge, and using critical thinking skills to discuss in detail links between natural hazards and climate change.
  • Using knowledge of previous case studies to categorise and discuss important information into social, economic and environmental groupings.

Link to prior learning

  • Key Atlas skills (being effectively using own understanding to locate places on a map eg: with a key).
  • Key OS map skills
  • A revision of key terms including: natural hazard, climate change, volcano, earthquake, disruption, plate margin.
  • Recognising how natural hazards are formed
  • Identifying key features of both tectonic and weather hazards.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • The site, situation and connectivity of the country and its significance, in a national (environmental and cultural), regional and global context.
  • Broad political, social, cultural and environmental context of the chosen country in its region and globally.
  • The key economic trends (GDP, per capita GNI, changing importance of economic sectors, imports and exports and type and origin of foreign direct investment) since 1990.
  • The role of globalisation (advances in communications and transport technology, TNCs and outsourcing) and government policy (receipt of tied or multi-lateral aid, education and infrastructure investment, pro-FDI policy) in the development of the chosen country.
  • How rapid economic change has contributed to demographic change (fertility and death rates), caused urbanisation (rural urban migration, city growth) and created different regions with different socio-economic characteristics.
  • Positive and negative impacts of economic development and globalisation on different age and gender groups.
  • Impacts of economic development and globalisation on the environment (air, water and land pollution, greenhouse gases) at a variety of scales (human health and global climate change).
  • How rapid economic development has changed the geopolitical influence (regional influence, role in international organisations) and relationships with the EU and USA.
  • Conflicting views of the costs and benefits of changing international relations and the role of foreign investment (TNCs) in the economic development.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Can I explain how Development of the emerging country is
    influenced by its location and context in the world?
  • Can I explain how Globalisation causes rapid economic change in the emerging country?
  • Can I explain how Rapid economic growth results n significant positive and negative impacts on people and environment in the emerging country?
  • Can I explain how Rapid economic development has changed the international role of the emerging country?
  • Can I use numerical economic data to profile the chosen country
  • Can I use proportional flow-line maps to visualise trade patterns and flows
  • Can I use socio-economic data to calculate difference from the mean, for core and periphery regions.

Link to prior learning

  • Key Atlas skills (being effectively using own understanding to locate places on a map eg: with a key).
  • Key OS map skills
  • A revision of key terms including: natural hazard, climate change, volcano, earthquake, disruption, plate margin.
  • Recognising how natural hazards are formed
  • Identifying key features of both tectonic and weather hazards.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Past (since 1980) and current global trends in urbanisation, how it varies between global regions, and future projections of global urbanisation.
  • The global pattern of megacities (size, location, growth rates) and how in many countries some urban areas have disproportionate economic and/or political influence (urban primacy).
  • How economic change and migration (national and international) contributes to the growth and/or decline of cities in the developing, emerging and developed countries.
  • Why urban economies are different in the developing, emerging and developed countries (formal versus informal employment, relative importance of economic sectors, working conditions).
  • How urban population numbers, distribution and spatial growth change over time (urbanisation, suburbanisation, de-industrialisation, counter-urbanisation and in some cases, regeneration).
  • Characteristics of different urban land uses (commercial, industrial, residential) and the factors that influence land-use type (accessibility, availability, cost, planning regulations).
  • Significance of site, situation and connectivity of the megacity in a national (environmental and cultural), regional and global context.
  • The megacity’s structure (Central Business District (CBD), inner city, suburbs, urban-rural fringe) in terms of its functions and building age.
  • Reasons for past and present trends in population growth (rates of natural increase, national and international migration, economic investment and growth) for the megacity. How population growth has affected the pattern of spatial growth and changing urban functions and land use. 
  • The opportunities for people (access to resources and employment) living in the megacity.
  • The challenges for people living in the megacity caused by rapid population growth (housing shortages, the development of squatter and slum settlements, inadequate water supply and waste disposal, poor employment conditions, and limited service provision and traffic congestion).
  • The pattern of residential areas of extreme wealth and contrasted with slums and squatter settlements, and reasons for differences in quality of life within the megacity and the political and economic challenges of managing the megacity.
  • Advantages and disadvantages of city-wide government (top-down) strategies for making the megacity more sustainable (managing water supply, waste disposal, transport and air quality).
  • Advantages and disadvantages of community and NGO-led bottom-up strategies for making the megacity more sustainable (city housing, health and education services in the megacity).

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • I can explain how the world is becoming increasingly urbanised
  • I can describe how urbanisation is a result of socio-economic processes and
    change.
  • I can explain how cities change over time and this is reflected in changing land use.
  • I can use and interpretation of line graphs and calculating of rate of change/annual or decadal percentage growth
  • I can use satellite images to identify different land use zones in urban areas.
  • I can use GIS/satellite images, historic images and maps to investigate spatial growth
  • I can use quantitative and qualitative information to judge the scale of variations in quality of life.

Link to prior learning

  • Key Atlas skills (being effectively using own understanding to locate places on a map eg: with a key).
  • Key OS map skills
  • A revision of key terms including: natural hazard, climate change, volcano, earthquake, disruption, plate margin.
  • Recognising how natural hazards are formed
  • Identifying key features of both tectonic and weather hazards.

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • How geological structure (concordant/discordant, joints and faults) and rock type (hard/soft rock) influence erosional landforms (headlands and bays, caves, arches, cliffs, stacks, wave cut platforms) in the formation of coastal landscapes of erosion.
  • How UK climate (seasonality, storm frequency, prevailing winds), marine (destructive waves) and sub-aerial processes (mass movement, weathering) are important in coastal landscapes of erosion as well as the rate of coastal retreat.
  • How sediment transportation (longshore drift) and deposition processes (constructive waves) influence coastal landforms (spits, beaches and bars) on coastal landscapes of deposition.
  • How human activities (development, agriculture, industry, coastal management) have direct or indirect effects on coastal landscapes. How the interaction of physical and human processes is causing change on one named coastal landscape including the significance of its location.
  • Why there are increasing risks from coastal flooding consequences of climate change on marine erosion and deposition, including an increased frequency of storms and rising sea level) and the threats to people and environment.
  • Why there are costs and benefits to, and conflicting views about, managing coastal processes by hard engineering (groynes and sea walls) and by soft engineering (beach replenishment, slope stabilisation) as well as more sustainable approaches (‘do nothing’ and ‘strategic realignment’ linked to Integrated Coastal Zone Management).

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • I can explain how distinctive coastal landscapes are influenced by geology interacting with physical processes
  • I can explain how distinctive coastal landscapes are modified by human activity interacting with physical processes
  • I can explore the kinds of questions capable of being investigated through fieldwork
  • I can use the Calculation of mean rates of erosion using a multi-year data set
  • I can use of BGS Geology maps (paper or online) to link coastal form to geology
  • I can recognise coastal landforms on 1:25000 and 1:50000 OS maps.
  • The interaction of human and physical processes present challenges along coastlines and there are a variety of management options
  • I can explore the kinds of questions that can be investigated through fieldwork
  • I can use 1:25000 and 1:50000 OS maps, and GIS, to investigate what is threatened by rapid erosion
  • I can use of simple cost-benefit analysis to investigate coastal defence options
  • I can use of 1:25000 and 1:50000 OS maps, and GIS, to investigate the impact of policy decisions.

Link to prior learning

  • Reference to rural-urban migration and Rio case study
  • Reference to London case study and RTS (urbanisation)

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Different ways of classifying parts of the world according to their level of economic development and quality of life.
  • Different economic and social measures of development: gross national income (GNI) per head, birth and death rates, infant mortality, life expectancy, people per doctor, literacy rates, access to safe water, Human Development Index (HDI). Limitations of economic and social measures.
  • Link between stages of the Demographic Transition Model and the level of development. Causes of uneven development: physical, economic and historical. Consequences of uneven development: disparities in wealth and health, international migration.
  • An overview of the strategies used to reduce the development gap: investment, industrial development and tourism, aid, using intermediate technology, fairtrade, debt relief, microfinance loans.
  • An example of how the growth of tourism in an LIC or NEE helps to reduce the development gap. A case study of one LIC or NEE to illustrate: the location and importance of the country, regionally and globally the wider political, social, cultural and environmental context within which the country is placed the changing industrial structure. The balance between different sectors of the economy. How manufacturing industry can stimulate economic development the role of transnational corporations (TNCs) in relation to industrial development.
  • Advantages and disadvantages of TNC(s) to the host country the changing political and trading relationships with the wider world international aid: types of aid, impacts of aid on the receiving country the environmental impacts of economic development the effects of economic development on quality of life for the population. causes of economic change: de-industrialisation and decline of traditional industrial base, globalisation and government policies moving towards a post-industrial economy: development of information technology, service industries, finance, research, science and business parks impacts of industry on the physical environment. An example of how modern industrial development can be more environmentally sustainable social and economic changes in the rural landscape in one area of population growth and one area of population decline improvements and new developments in road and rail infrastructure, port and airport capacity the north–south divide. Strategies used in an attempt to resolve regional differences the place of the UK in the wider world.
  • Links through trade, culture, transport, and electronic communication. Economic and political links: the European Union (EU) and Commonwealth.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Can I explain why a growing percentage of the worlds population live in urban areas?
  • Can I explain why urban growth creates opportunities and challenges for cities in LICs and NEEs?
  • Can I explain how urban change in cities in the UK leads to a variety of social, economic and environmental opportunities and challenges.
  • Can I explain how urban sustainability requires management of resources and transport.

Link to prior learning

  • Reference to y9 ‘resources unit’ which focused on food/water/emergy as a resource.
  • Reference to ‘sustainable management’
  • Reference to climate change unit

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • The significance of food, water and energy to economic and social well-being. An overview of global inequalities in the supply and consumption of resources. An overview of resources in relation to the UK.
  • Food: the growing demand for high-value food exports from low income countries and all-year demand for seasonal food and organic produce larger carbon footprints due to the increasing number of ‘food miles’ travelled, and moves towards local sourcing of food the trend towards agribusiness.
  • Water: the changing demand for water water quality and pollution management matching supply and demand – areas of deficit and surplus the need for transfer to maintain supplies.
  • Energy: the changing energy mix – reliance on fossil fuels, growing significance of renewables reduced domestic supplies of coal, gas and oil economic and environmental issues associated with exploitation of energy sources.
  • Areas of surplus (security) and deficit (insecurity): global distribution of energy consumption and supply reasons for increasing energy consumption: economic development, rising population, technology factors affecting energy supply: physical factors, cost of exploitation and production, technology and political factors. Impacts of energy insecurity – exploration of difficult and environmentally sensitive areas, economic and environmental costs, food production, industrial output, potential for conflict where demand exceeds supply.
  • Overview of strategies to increase energy supply: renewable (biomass, wind, hydro, tidal, geothermal, wave and solar) and non-renewable (fossil fuels and nuclear power) sources of energy an example to show how the extraction of a fossil fuel has both advantages and disadvantages.
  • Moving towards a sustainable resource future: individual energy use and carbon footprints. Energy conservation: designing homes, workplaces and transport for sustainability, demand reduction, use of technology to increase efficiency in the use of fossil fuels an example of a local renewable energy scheme in an LIC or NEE to provide sustainable supplies of energy.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Can I explain how Food, water and energy are fundamental to human development.
  • Can I explain how the changing demand and provision of resources in the UK create opportunities and challenges.
  • Can I explain the demand for energy resources is rising globally but supply can be insecure, which may lead to conflict.
  • Can I explain the different strategies can be used to increase energy supply.

Link to prior learning

  • Reference to previous ‘rivers’ unit and fieldwork undertaken last year

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • The factors that need to be considered when selecting suitable questions/hypotheses for geographical enquiry.
  • The geographical theory/concept underpinning the enquiry. Appropriate sources of primary and secondary evidence, including locations for fieldwork.
  • The potential risks of both human and physical fieldwork and how these risks might be reduced.
  • Difference between primary and secondary data. Identification and selection of appropriate physical and human data.
  • Measuring and recording data using different sampling methods.
  • Description and justification of data collection methods.
  • Appreciation that a range of visual, graphical and cartographic methods is available.
  • Selection and accurate use of appropriate presentation methods.
  • Description, explanation and adaptation of presentation methods
  • Description, analysis and explanation of the results of fieldwork data.
  • Establish links between data sets.
  • Use appropriate statistical techniques.
  • Identification of anomalies in fieldwork data.
  • Draw evidenced conclusions in relation to original aims of the enquiry. Identification of problems of data collection methods.
  • Identification of limitations of data collected.
  • Suggestions for other data that might be useful.
  • Extent to which conclusions were reliable.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Suitable question for geographical enquiry
  • Selecting, measuring and recording data appropriate to the chosen enquiry
  • Selecting appropriate ways of processing and presenting fieldwork data
  • Describing, analysing and explaining fieldwork data
  • Reaching conclusions 6. Evaluation of geographical enquiry

Revision will be completed for the GCSE exams