KS4 Science (Separate)

Module 1

Teacher 1 – Biology: Cell & Organisation, Physics: Forces In Action

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

Biology

  • Describe a cell as the basic structural unit of all organisms describe the main subcellular structures of eukaryotic cells (plants and animals) and prokaryotic cells
  • Relate sub-cellular structures to their functions, especially the nucleus/genetic material, plasmids, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, ribosomes, chloroplasts and cell membranes
  • Explain the aseptic techniques used in culturing microorganisms.

Physics

  • Mechanical, thermal and electrical changes transfer energy between sources
  • Identify and quantify the different ways that the energy of a system can be changed through work done by forces, in electrical equipment, or in heating, and describe how each of these may be measured
  • Relate everyday examples of changes to systems to descriptions and explanations of the physical processes by which changes come about, including heating by conduction and radiation and the movement of hot fluids (convection).
  • Explain, with examples, that there is no net change to the total energy of a closed system.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Use prefixes centi, milli, micro and nano.
  • Evaluation of scientific techniques.
  • Arithmetic computation when calculating energy changes.
  • Work out resolution of forces.

Links to prior learning (to be made explicit and tested)

  • In KS3 students learn the structure and functions of cells.
  • In KS3 students are introduced to energy changes.

Teacher 2 – Chemistry: Atoms, Bonding & Moles

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Describe how and why the atomic model has changed over time.
  • Describe the atom as a positively charged nucleus surrounded by negatively charged electrons, with the nuclear radius much smaller than that of the atom and with most of the mass in the nucleus
  • Recall relative charges and approximate relative masses of protons, neutrons and electrons calculate numbers of protons, neutrons and electrons in atoms and ions, given proton number and mass number of isotopes.
  • Use the names and symbols of the first 20 elements, Groups 1, 7 and 0 and other common elements from a supplied Periodic Table to write formulae and balanced chemical equations
  • Relate the reactions of elements to the arrangement of electrons in their atoms and hence to their atomic number.
  • Recall the simple properties of Groups 1, 7 and 0.
  • Correlate observed trends in simple properties of Groups 1,7 and 0 with the electronic structure of the atoms and predict properties from given trends.
  • State the general properties of transition metals (melting point, density, reactivity, formation of coloured ions with different charges and uses as catalysts) and exemplify these by reference to a small number of transition metals.
  • Show understanding that the Periodic Table allows predictions to be made about how elements might react predict reactions and reactivity of elements from their positions in the Periodic Table

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Calculate the radius of an atom.
  • Draw electronic structure diagrams.

Links to prior learning (to be made explicit and tested)

  • The particle model is introduced in KS3.
  • The charges and locations of all the subatomic particles are taught in KS3.
Module 2

Teacher 1 – Biology: Cells & Organisation, Physics: Particles At Work

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

Biology

  • Evaluate the impact of electron microscopy on our understanding of subcellular structures including the nucleus, plasmids, mitochondria, chloroplasts and ribosomes.
  • Know the role of chromosomes in cells.
  • Describe the cell cycle.
  • Explain how cells divide.
  • Compare differentiation in plants and animals.
  • Describe how stem cells can be used for the treatment of different diseases.
  • Describe how tissues, cells and organs are formed.
  • Describe the function and structure of the digestive system.
  • Describe enzyme functions and how they contribute to metabolism.

Physics

  • Calculate the power, transferred in any circuit device and relate this to the e.m.f. applied and the circuit resistance, and to the energy changes over a given time
  • Describe the ways in which different domestic devices transform electrical energy into the energy of motors or of heating devices.
  • Distinguish between series and parallel circuits, and explain why, if two resistors are in series the net resistance is increased, whereas with two in parallel the net resistance is decreased
  • Calculate the currents, potential differences and resistances in series circuits, and design, construct, test and describe such circuits.
  • Recall that the domestic supply is a.c., at 50Hz. and about 230 volts in the UK, explain the difference between direct and alternating voltages, and discuss the advantages of using a higher or a lower voltage
  • Explain how and why domestic circuits use a ring main.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Evaluate the pros and cons of stem cell treatment.
  • Recall the tests for protein, carbohydrates, sugar and starch.
  • Calculate the currents, potential differences and resistances in series circuits.
  • Design, construct, test and describe such circuits.

Links to prior learning (to be made explicit and tested)

  • Stem cells are introduced in KS3.
  • The structures of plants are introduced in KS3.
  • Tissues and organs are introduced in KS3.
  • Enzymes are introduced in KS3.

Teacher 2 – Chemistry: Atoms, Bonding & Moles

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Distinguish between the nature and arrangement of chemical bonds in ionic compounds, simple molecules, and giant molecular structures and polymers.
  • Explain chemical bonding in terms of electrostatic forces and describe the transfer or sharing of electrons appreciate the limitations of dot and cross diagrams as representations.
  • Explain how the different types of bonds, their strengths in comparison with intermolecular forces, and the ways they are arranged are related to the properties of the materials.
  • Show understanding of the principles of molecular recognition using a simple ‘lock and key’ model appreciate that bulk properties of matter result from macro structures of atoms, but the atoms themselves do not have these properties.
  • Write ‘nano’ in standard mathematical form.
  • Relate ‘nano’ to typical dimensions of atoms and molecules.
  • Relate surface area to volume for different-sized particles and describe how this affects properties.
  • Relate the properties of nano-particulate materials to their uses.
  • Consider the possible risks associated with some nanoparticulate materials.
  • Explain the properties of diamond, graphite, fullerenes and graphene in terms of their structures and bonding.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Draw dot and cross diagrams for ionic bonds.
  • Draw dot and cross diagrams of covalent bonds.
  • Work out chemical formulas from atomic diagrams.
  • Compare chemical bonds.
  • Estimate size and scale of atoms and nanoparticles
  • Translate information between diagrammatic and numerical forms represent three dimensional shapes in two dimensions and vice versa when looking at chemical structures e.g. allotropes of carbon interpret, order and
  • Calculate with numbers written in standard form when dealing with nanoparticles
  • Use ratios when considering relative sizes and surface area to volume comparisons.

Links to prior learning (to be made explicit and tested)

  • Ionic structure is introduced in KS3.
  • The basics of chemical bonding and compounds are introduced in KS3.
Module 3

Teacher 1 – Biology: Cell & Organisation, Physics: Particles At Work

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

Biology

  • Recall the lock and key mechanism.
  • Recall what is meant be “ideal conditions” for enzymes and what denaturation is.
  • Explain how substances are transported around the body.
  • Know the different components of the blood and their functions.
  • Describe the human circulatory system.
  • Relate the structure of the heart and the blood vessels to their functions
  • Recognise the main components of the blood as red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and plasma and explain the functions of each.

Physics

  • Relate energy transfers into and out of a material to changes of state and/or changes in temperature, define the terms specific latent heat and specific heat capacity and distinguish between them.
  • Explain that when substances melt, freeze, evaporate, condense or sublimate mass is conserved, but that these physical changes differ from chemical changes because the material recovers its original properties if the change is reversed.
  • Explain the difference between boiling and evaporation.
  • Explain the differences in density between the different states of matter in terms of the arrangements and motions of the atoms or molecules and that the differences in boiling and melting temperatures between different substances are related to the differences in the strengths of their intermolecular bonds.
  • Relate the pressure of a gas to the motion of the molecules.
  • Explain that radioactive decay is a random process, the concept of half-life and how the hazards associated with radioactive material differ according to the half-life involved, and to the differences in the penetration properties of alpha-particles, beta-particles and gamma-rays.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Apply the relationship between density, mass and volume to changes where mass is conserved.
  • Apply the relationship between change in internal energy of a material and its mass, specific heat capacity and temperature change to calculate the energy change involved.
  • Calculate and plot half life.
  • Balance equations representing alpha-, beta- or gamma-radiations in terms of the masses, and charges of the atoms involved calculate the net decline, expressed as a ratio, in a radioactive emission after a given number of half-lives.

Links to prior learning (to be made explicit and tested)

  • The lock and key mechanism is introduced in KS3.
  • Blood vessels and their function are introduced at KS3.

Teacher 2 – Chemistry: Chemical Changes

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Understand and use the definitions of the Avogadro constant (in standard form) and of the mole.
  • Relate the mass of a given substance to the amount of that substance in moles and vice versa
  • Use the molar gas volume at room temperature and pressure (assumed to be 24 dm3 ) to relate molar amounts of gases to their volumes and vice versa, and to calculate volumes of gases involved in reactions relate the mass of a solute and the volume of the solution to the concentration of the solution
  • Determine the stoichiometry of an equation from the masses of reactants and products including the effect of a limiting quantity of a reactant.
  • Relate the concentration of a solution in mol/dm3 to the mass of a solute and the volume of solution.
  • Relate the volume of a solution of known concentration of a substance required to react completely with a given volume of a solution of another substance of known concentration.
  • Describe neutralisation as acid reacting with alkali to form a salt plus water.
  • Recognise that aqueous neutralisation reactions can be generalised to hydrogen ions reacting with hydroxide ions to form water.
  • Use and explain the terms dilute and concentrated (amount of substance) and weak and strong (degree of ionisation) in relation to acids.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Calculate relative formula masses of species separately and in a balanced chemical equation.
  • Use a balanced equation to calculate masses of reactants or products.
  • Arithmetic computation, ratio, percentage and multi step calculations permeates quantitative chemistry calculations with numbers written in standard form when using the Avogadro constant.
  • Change the subject of a mathematical equation.
  • Provide answers to an appropriate number of significant figures.
  • Convert units where appropriate particularly from mass to moles.

Links to prior learning (to be made explicit and tested)

  • Word equations and balanced symbol equations are introduced at KS3.
Module 4

Teacher 1 – Biology: Diseases & Bioenergetics

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Describe the structure of xylem and phloem and link these to their functions in the plant
  • Explain how water and mineral ions are taken up by plants, relating the structure of the root hair cells to their function
  • State that plants have transport tissues called xylem and phloem.
  • Recall that water and minerals are transported in the xylem and that the products of photosynthesis are transported in the phloem].
  • Explain the processes of transpiration and translocation, linking the structure of the stomata to their function
  • Predict the effect of a variety of environmental factors on the rate of water uptake by a plant, to include light intensity, air movement, and temperature.
  • Recall that bacteria, viruses, protoctista and fungi can cause infectious disease in animals and plants.
  • Show understanding of how infectious diseases are spread in animals and plants: (to include a minimum of one common infection, one plant disease, and sexually transmitted infections in humans including HIV/AIDS).

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Calculate surface area:volume ratios.
  • Use simple compound measures such as rate.
  • Carry out rate calculations.
  • Plot, draw and interpret appropriate graphs.

Links to prior learning (to be made explicit and tested)

  • Tissues and specialised cells are introduced in KS3.
  • He difference between plant and animal cells are introduced in KS3.

Teacher 2 – Chemistry: Rates, Equilibrium & Organic Chemistry

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Suggest practical methods for determining the rate of a given reaction.
  • Describe the effect of changes in temperature, concentration, pressure, and surface area on rate of reaction
  • Explain the effects of changes in temperature, concentration and pressure in terms of frequency and energy of collision between particles.
  • Explain the effects of changes in the size of the pieces of a reacting solid in terms of surface area to volume ratio
  • Describe the characteristics of catalysts and their effect on rates of reaction.
  • Identify catalysts in reactions explain catalytic action in terms of activation energy
  • Recall that enzymes act as catalysts in biological systems.
  • Explain the basic principles of addition polymerisation and condensation polymerisation by reference to the minimum number of functional groups within a monomer, number of repeating units in the polymer, and simultaneous formation or otherwise of a small molecule.
  • Deduce the structure of an additional polymer from a simple alkene monomer and vice versa.
  • Appreciate that DNA is a polymer made from four types of monomer called nucleotides and that each nucleotide consists of a common sugar and phosphate group with one of four different bases attached to each sugar.
  • Appreciate that a knowledge of organic chemistry is necessary to understand the chemical properties of the vast array of naturally occurring and synthetic materials by reference to the generality of reactions of functional groups and the ability of carbon to form chains, rings and helices.
  • Recognise functional groups and identify members of the same homologous series.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Interpret rate of reaction graphs.
  • Calculate surface area to volume ratio.
  • Draw reaction profiles.
  • Name and draw the structural formulae, using fully displayed formulae, of the first four members of the straight chain alkanes, alkenes and alcohols.

Links to prior learning (to be made explicit and tested)

  • Students will be introduced to catalysts and enzymes in KS3.
  • Students will study the basics of collision theory in KS3.
Module 5

Teacher 1 – Biology: Diseases & Bioenergetics

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Explain how the spread of infectious diseases may be reduced or prevented in animals and plants. To include a minimum of one common infection, one plant disease and sexually transmitted infections in humans including HIV/AIDS.
  • Recognise and explain the difficulties of controlling infections in plants.
  • Describe the non-specific defence of the human body against pathogens
  • Describe the role of the specific immune system of the human body in defence against disease.
  • State that light is needed for photosynthesis, recall the main reactants and products of photosynthesis and recognise photosynthesis as an endothermic reaction.
  • Describe plants and algae as the main producers of food for life on Earth.
  • Demonstrate the effect of light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis.
  • Predict the effect of temperature and carbon dioxide concentration on the rate of photosynthesis
  • Evaluate the effect of long term changes in carbon dioxide levels, light intensity and temperature on photosynthesis.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Understand and use simple compound measures such as the rate of a reaction translate information between graphical and numerical form
  • Plot and draw appropriate graphs, selecting appropriate scales for axes
  • Understand and use inverse proportion, the inverse square law and light intensity in the context of factors affecting photosynthesis.
  • Extract and interpret information from graphs, charts and tables.

Links to prior learning (to be made explicit and tested)

  • Students are introduced to pathogens and the immune system in KS3.
  • Students are introduced to photosynthesis and respiration in KS3.

Teacher 2 – Chemistry: Rates, Equilibrium & Organic Chemistry, Physics: Forces In Action

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

Chemistry

  • Describe, explain and exemplify the processes of filtration, crystallisation, simple distillation, and fractional distillation.
  • Recall that chromatography involves a stationary and a mobile phase and that separation depends on the distribution between the phases.
  • Suggest suitable purification techniques given information about the substances involved.
  • Distinguish pure from impure substances from melting point data.
  • Suggest chromatographic methods for distinguishing pure from impure substances.
  • Identify the ions of Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Calcium and copper from their flame.
  • Identify the negative ions of carbonates, halides and sulphides.

Physics

  • Recall that some nuclei are unstable and may split, and relate such effects to transfer of energy to other particles and to radiation which might emerge.
  • Recognise that forces have a well-defined direction and are vectors.
  • Measurements and the newton relate the newton as the unit of force to the units of inertial mass and of acceleration.
  • Recognise forces that cause rotation.
  • Define the moment of such forces and calculate their values.
  • Explain how levers and gears transmit the effects of linear and rotational forces.
  • Recognise and predict phenomena that depend either on weight or on inertial
    mass, distinguish between the two, and explain why very different objects all fall to earth at the same rate if air resistance low.
  • Explain the vector-scalar distinction as it applies to displacement, velocity and speed.
  • Estimate the speeds encountered in everyday experience, both for natural phenomena (wind, sound, light) and transportation systems; and the magnitudes of everyday accelerations, including the acceleration in free fall.
  • Explain that motion in a circle involves constant speed but changing velocity (qualitative only).

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Interpret chromatograms, including measuring Rf values.
  • Balance equations representing alpha-, beta- or gamma-radiations in terms of the masses, and charges of the atoms involved calculate the net decline, expressed as a ratio, in a radioactive emission after a given number of half-lives.
  • Calculate moments.
  • Calculate momentum.

Links to prior learning (to be made explicit and tested)

  • Students are introduced to compounds and mixtures in KS3.
  • Students will have done basic chromatography in KS3.
  • Students will cover the basics of forces in KS3.
Module 6

Teacher 1 – Biology: Biological Responses

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Explain the mechanism of enzyme action including the active site and enzyme specificity recall the difference between intracellular and extracellular enzymes.
  • Recognise that cellular respiration is an exothermic reaction which enables metabolic processes in cells.
  • Compare the processes of aerobic and anaerobic respiration
  • Describe some anabolic and catabolic processes in living organisms including the importance of sugars, amino acids, fatty acids and glycerol in the synthesis and breakdown of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins.
  • Explain the importance of maintaining a constant internal environment.
  • Explain the importance of removing the waste products of metabolism including carbon dioxide and urea.
  • Summarise the roles of the skin, the lungs and the kidneys in homeostasis and excretion.
  • Explain the function of the skin in the control of body temperature.
  • Predict the effect on cells of osmotic changes in body fluids.
  • Describe the function of the kidneys in maintaining the water balance of the body explaining the effect of ADH on the permeability of the kidney tubules.
  • Explain the response of the body to different temperature and osmotic challenges.
  • Describe the areas and functions of the different parts of the brain.
  • Describe the areas and functions of the different parts of the eye.
  • Describe and explain some common problems with the eye.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Drawing ray diagrams.
  • Evaluate enzyme activity.
  • Investigate different peoples reactions rates.

Links to prior learning (to be made explicit and tested)

  • Students will be introduced to anaerobic and aerobic respiration in KS3.
  • Students are introduced to homeostasis in KS3.

Teacher 2 – Physics: Forces In Action

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Make and interpret measurements of distances, times, speeds and accelerations, and represent these in graphical form.
  • Explain the implications of human reaction times in relation to safety in transport.
  • Describe observations showing that fluids exert forces in all directions: explain that pressure, the force per unit area exerted by, or on, any fluid, acts normal to any surface.
  • Explain why the work done in the compression or expansion of gases is the product of the pressure and the change in volume.
  • Explain that force is the rate of momentum change and explain the dangers caused by large decelerations and the forces involved.
  • Recall and apply Newton’s Third Law both to equilibrium situations and to collision interactions and relate it to the conservation of momentum in collisions.
  • Explain why the pressure in liquids varies with density and depth, and calculate the magnitude of the pressure.
  • Explain why an object immersed in a liquid is subject to a net upward force which can affect whether or not it floats or sinks.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Make calculations using ratios and proportional reasoning to convert units and to compute rates.
  • Represent changes and differences using appropriate distance-time, velocity-time and acceleration-time graphs, and interpret lines, slopes and enclosed areas in such graphs.
  • Apply formula relating distance, time and speed, for uniform motion, and for motion with uniform acceleration, and calculate average speed for non-uniform motion.
  • Apply formulae relating force, mass, velocity, and acceleration to explore how changes involved are interrelated.
  • Apply equations about conservation in collisions.

Links to prior learning (to be made explicit and tested)

  • Calculate relevant moments, pressures and energy transfers; intra-convert newton-metres with joules.
  • Use vector diagrams to illustrate resolution of forces, a net force, and equilibrium situations (qualitative only).