KS4 Physical Education

Module 1 - 3.1.1.1 The Structure & Functions of the Musculoskeletal System

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • The major bones within the skeletal system.
  • The major muscles within the muscular system.
  • The functions of the skeletal system.
  • What sporting examples can be applied to each function?
  • The structure of a synovial joint.
  • The role of the synovial joint.
  • The roles of ligaments and tendons.
  • The different types of joint in the body.
  • What are the joint movements associated with specific sporting movements?
  • Antagonistic muscle pairs.
  • Which muscle is the agonist, and which is the antagonist, in a specific sporting movement?

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Be able to identify (on the body) the location of the major bones and muscles;
  • Be able to identify the major muscles and bones responsible for specific sporting actions, identifying the agonist (and antagonist) muscle within said action;
  • Be able to recognise when the functions of the skeletal system are used within different sporting scenarios;
  • Be able to clearly identify the components (and therefore structure) of a synovial joint, and its role within the body;
  • Be able to identify sporting movements which require movement at a specific joint in order for successful execution;
  • Be able to explain how a muscle group works isometrically or isotonically (concentric and eccentric) in order to perform a specific sporting action.

Links to prior learning (to be made explicit and tested)

  • Pupils will have a solid foundation of knowledge from KS3. Module One will be used to recap and develop this knowledge in an applied manner, to varying sporting examples and scenarios.
Module 2 - 3.1.1.2 The Structure & Function of the Cardio-Respiratory System

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • The pathway of air.
  • What are the characteristics and features of the alveoli?
  • Gaseous exchange.
  • What are structural features of arteries, capillaries, and veins? (Blood Vessels)
  • What are the functions of each blood vessel and how do their structural features support this?
  • The structure of the heart.
  • What is the cardiac cycle/the pathway of blood through the heart?
  • What is heart rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output?
  • The mechanics of breathing – the interaction of the intercostal muscles, ribs and diaphragm in breathing.
  • The types of lung volume.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Understand the role of haemoglobin in the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
  • Explain how the features/characteristics of the alveoli assist with gaseous exchange.
  • Assess each vessels relative importance.
  • Further apply the learning to the vessels entering/exiting the heart.
  • Understand the relationship to calculate cardiac output.
  • Be able to analyse data and spot changes in heart rate.
  • Plot graphs to demonstrate heart rate data that can be explained/analysed.
  • Name the anatomical parts involved and explain how these work together during inhalation.
  • Explain how these work together during exhalation (including the role of other muscles).
  • Explain what each volume is.
  • Be able to identify each on a spirometer trace.
  • Be able to interpret/analyse each on a spirometer trace.

Links to prior learning (to be made explicit and tested)

  • With knowledge obrtained from both KS3 PE and Science, pupils will build on their understanding of gaseous exchange, heart structure, and breathing mechanics to apply such knowledge to sporting examples and provide reasoned conclusions.
Module 3

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Health and Fitness;
  • Linking participation in physical activity, exercise and sport to health, well-being and fitness, and how exercise can suit the varying needs of different people;
  • The consequences of a sedentary lifestyle;
  • Obesity;
  • Somatotypes;
  • Energy use and Nutrition.
  • The Components of Fitness;
  • Reasons why we fitness test;
  • Measuring the components of fitness.
  • Understanding the terms aerobic exercise (in the presence of oxygen) and anaerobic exercise (in the absence of enough oxygen).
  • Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC)/oxygen debt as the result of muscles respiring anaerobically during vigorous exercise and producing lactic acid.
  • The recovery process from vigorous exercise: cool down; manipulation of diet; ice baths/massage.
  • The immediate effects of exercise (during exercise);
  • The short-term effects of exercise (24-36 hours after exercise);
  • The long-term effects of exercise (months and years of exercising).
  • Levers, Planes and Axes:

    • First, Second and Third class lever systems within sporting examples;
    • Mechanical advantage in relation to the three lever systems;
    • Identification of the relevant planes (frontal, transverse, sagittal) and axes (longitudinal, transverse, sagittal) of movement used whilst performing sporting actions.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Simple recall of definitions (health; fitness; components of fitness);
  • Develop the ability to explain the 3 concepts of health (physical, mental, social);
  • Link exercise to the effects on each.
  • Link obesity to the effects on performance/health;
  • Application of each body type to a variety of sporting examples, and their appropriateness;
  • Understand the constituents of a balanced diet;
  • Evaluation of why a balanced diet is needed;
  • Evaluate why water intake is required, making reasoned conclusions.
  • Evaluate and justify the importance of the components to varying sporting examples (use of reasoned conclusions);
  • Recall reasons and limitations of fitness testing;
  • Explain the basic protocol of each fitness test.
  • Summary of aerobic exercise: glucose + oxygen → energy + carbon dioxide + water.
  • Summary of anaerobic exercise: glucose → energy + lactic acid.
  • Link practical examples of sporting situations to aerobic or anaerobic exercise.
  • Provide justified answers with reasoned conclusion as to why an activity is likely to be aerobic or anaerobic.
  • An understanding that EPOC (oxygen debt) is caused by anaerobic exercise (producing lactic acid) and requires the performer to maintain increased breathing rate after exercise to repay the debt.
  • To justify why each recovery method would be used and the benefits each provide to the sportsperson.
  • Name the effects of exercise; Explain the effects of exercise.
  • Identification of first, second and third class lever systems;
  • Interpretation of sporting movements or actions which involve flexion or extension of the elbow, hip and/or knee, and plantar or dorsi-flexion at the ankle.
  • Label the effort arm and load/resistance arm on the three classes of lever.
    Mechanical advantage = effort arm ÷ weight (resistance) arm.
  • Justify why one lever has a bigger mechanical advantage than another.
  • Planes (frontal, transverse, sagittal) and axes (longitudinal, transverse, sagittal) should be related to varying sporting actions.

Links to prior learning (to be made explicit and tested)

  • With reference to prior knowledge obtained, pupils are confident in their understanding of what is meant by health and fitness, whilst most will be able to recall the components of fitness with a high level of success.
  • Pupils will build on this to reognise a variety of sporting examples (from various disciplines) in which the components of fitness can be applied.
  • Pupils will be introduced to movement patterns, recognising the demands from different sports and the skills/techniques that are required.
Module 4

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • SPORT to include:

    • specificity;
    • progressive overload;
    • reversibility;
    • tedium.
  • Key principles of overload.
  • FITT to include:

    • frequency;
    • intensity;
    • time;
    • type.
  • Types/Methods of training.
  • Calculating inensities to optimise training effectiveness;
  • Considerations for injury prevention;
  • Specific training techniques;
  • Seasonal aspects;
  • Warming up and Cooling down.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • How the principles of training can be applied to bring about improvements in fitness;
  • Application of the principles to varying sporting examples;
  • Evaluate how certain principles hold particular importance when training for certain sports;
  • Make explicit links to the training types below.
  • Understand the distinctions between the different types of training;
  • The advantages and disadvantages (the effects on the body) of each type of training method stated above.
  • Students will be taught to select and evaluate appropriate training methods for various (aerobic and anaerobic) fitness needs and make links to sporting activity.
  • Evaluation and justification (with reasoned conclusions) as to why some training types are particularly useful for specified sports.
  • Basic recall of the specified intensities;
  • Applications of each to specific training types;
  • Linking the principles of training to sporting activities and training types, justifying the choice and the calculated intensity to be used.
  • Basic recall of the potential ways to prevent injury;
  • Evaluation of which ways are appropriate to which training types and sporting activities.
  • Understanding altitude training and the benefits when returning to sea level;
  • Evaluation of who would use altitude training with reasoned conclusions.
  • The names of the three seasons and their application to varying sports;
  • Evaluating the importance of each season.
  • What ‘parts’ a warm up and cool down should entail;
  • Applied examples to varying sports;
  • Evaluation of the benefits to be achieved.

Links to prior learning (to be made explicit and tested)

  • Pupils were introduced to the principles of training at KS3, and will now be taught explicit examples of how these can be applied across a variety of sports, using their knowledge of the methods of training to support said application.
Module 5

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Skill and ability;
  • Skill classifications;
  • The use and evaluation of setting performance and outcome goals in sporting examples;
  • The use of SMART targets to improve and/or optimise performance.
  • Basic information processing model;
  • The types of guidance and feedback.
  • Arousal;
  • Aggression;
  • Personality Types;
  • Motivation.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Pupils will choose and justify the approproate skill classification in relation to varying sporting examples.
  • Pupils will be able to set/recognise appropriate performance and/or outcome targets from varying sporting examples.
  • Apply SMART targets to a variety of sporting examples.
  • To apply the basic information processing model to skills from a variety of sporting examples.
  • Be able to evaluate the importance of each stage.
  • Evaluation of the use of the following types of guidance with specific links to:

    • visual (seeing)
    • verbal (hearing)
    • manual (assist movement– physical)
    • mechanical (use of objects/aids).
  • Students will be able to choose and justify which types of guidance are appropriate for beginners and/or elite level performers.
  • Evaluation of the use of the following types of feedback with specific links to beginners and to elite level performers:
  • positive/negative
  • knowledge of results/knowledge of performance
  • extrinsic/intrinsic.
  • Link the types of guidance and feedback to the stages of learning, providing reasoned conclusions.
  • To understand the relationship between arousal level and performance level;
  • Explain the stages of the inverted-U theory (before optimum point, optimum point and after optimum point).
  • Link appropriate arousal level (high/low) to gross/fine skills in sporting actions.
  • Link skills (not sports) to an appropriate arousal level, eg a tackle in rugby will need a high arousal level.
  • Understand and explain the terms direct and indirect aggression. Provide sporting examples of when these occur.
  • Knowledge of the terms introvert and extrovert;
  • Explain the characteristics of an introvert/extrovert;
  • Apply the sporting choices of a typical introvert/extrovert.
  • Explanation of the types of motivation;
  • Evaluate the worth or significance of both types, using practical examples.

Links to prior learning (to be made explicit and tested)

  • Paper 2, and more specifically Sports Psychology, will draw on pupils’ knowledge of goal setting and guidance and feedback. This will be developed through an introduction to SMART targets and the types of motivation.
Module 6

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • Engagement patterns of different social groups and the factors affecting participation.
  • Commercialisation (Sponsorship, Media, and Technology)
  • Conduct of performers.
  • Prohibited substances (PEDs and Blood Doping);
  • Advantages/Disadvantages to performer;
  • Advantages/Disadvantages to sport.
  • Spectator behaviour (hooliganism);
  • Strategies employed to combat hooliganism/spectator behaviour.

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • Understand factors that contribute to engagement patterns in the following social groups:

    • gender
    • race/religion/culture
    • age
    • family/friends/peers
    • disability.
  • Students will make links between the following factors/barriers and their relevance to engagement patterns of the groups above:

    • attitudes
    • role models
    • accessibility (to facilities/clubs/ activities)
    • media coverage
    • sexism/stereotyping
    • culture/religion/religious festivals
    • family commitments
    • available leisure time
    • familiarity
    • education
    • socio-economic factors/disposable income
    • adaptability/inclusiveness.
  • Understand the types of sponsorship/media within a variety of sporting contexts;
  • Pupils will develop a breadth of understanding and justify why commercialised activity can have a positive and/or negative impact;
  • Provide basic advantages and disadvantages of technology in sport; evaluating the advantages and disadvantages, with applied examples to varying sports.
  • Explain and apply varying sporting examples to the key definitions of conduct.
  • Evaluation of the advantages/disadvnatages of using PEDs and blood doping;
  • Relating specific types of PEDs to certain sports/activities with reasoned conclusion as to why they would benefit from said substance.
  • Evaluating the positive and negative influence of spectators at matches/events;
  • Develop an understanding of why hooliganism occurs;
  • To evaluate the effectiveness of strategies employed to combat hooliganism/spectator behaviour, with reasoned conclusions.

Links to prior learning (to be made explicit and tested)

  • Sociocultural influences have yet to be introduced to pupils, and therefore this module will expose them to this content for the first time, whilst drawing opinions from personal experiences when participating in, or spectating, physical activity and/or sport.