KS4 English Language

Modules 1 & 2 - Transactional Non-Fiction Writing (Paper 2, Section B)

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • What are the typical stylistic conventions of anewspaper article, a letter, a speech, a textbook or guidebook?
  • How can audience affect your writing?
  • How can purpose affect your writing?
  • What is rhetoric?
  • What are the constituents of the Aristotelian triad?
  • What is meant by pathos?
  • What is meant by logos?
  • What is meant by ethos?
  • What are the key methods that can be used to create effective rhetoric (AFOREST etc)?
  • What does the acronym HELMETs stand for and how can this be used to create effective rhetoric?
  • What is an anecdote?
  • What is direct address?
  • What is an analogy?
  • What is a syllogism?
  • What is genre?
  • What is a straw argument?
  • What is a steel argument?

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • To be able to identify the GAPS of a question;
  • To be able to replicate the form of a range of non-fiction writing types;
  • To able to plan a consistent and clear argument across a piece of writing.
  • To be able to effectively structure a piece of writing considering a range of ideas (using HELMETS);
  • To be able to use anecdotes effectively and across a paragraph;
  • To be able to adapt tone, style and register to a range of different tasks;
  • To be able to use a historical or literary analogy for effect;
  • To be able to use statistics and expert opinion to create logos;
  • To be able to manipulate nouns and pronouns for effect;
  • To be able to use emotive writing to create pathos;
  • To be able to manipulate structure for effect.

Links to prior learning (to be made explicit and tested)

Students have studied the Aristotelian triad previously as part of their work on Dramatic monologues in both Drama and English; students should be encouraged to draw on their KS3 studies across the curriculum when constructing arguments using HELMETS (Health, Economy, Legal, Mental health, Environment, Time, Society), and especially their prior studies in History and English when constructing historical and literary analogies respectively.

Module 3 - Comprehension & Analysis of Non-Fiction (Paper 2, Section A)

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • What types of non-fiction extracts can appear in language paper two section A?
  • What are the questions for this section of the paper?
  • What are the timings for this section of the paper?
  • What is the difference between a language feature and a structural feature?
  • What is syntax?
  • What is tone?
  • How can a writer create a specific tone or atmsophere?
  • What is an inference?
  • What is comparison and what language can be used to express similarities and differences?
  • What is a critical viewpoint?
  • What is a perspective?
  • How do writers use language and structural methods to present their perspectives?

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • To be able to identify the form, purpose and tone of a range of non-fiction extracts;
  • To be able to explain – clearly and with reference to evidence – how non-fiction writers use language and structure to create meaning and effect;
  • To be able to effectively structure an answer to each question in this section of the paper;
  • To be able to successfully embed quotations;
  • To be able to analyse the effect of language in a non fiction extract and how these create meaning;
  • To be able to analyse the effect of structure in a non fiction extract;
  • To be able to explain how syntax is used in an extract;
  • To be able to make accurate inferences about non-fiction extracts;
  • To be able to compare the ideas and perspectives of two different writers;
  • To be able to analyse the differences between the language, tone and structure in two unseen extracts;
  • To be able to identify the stylstic conventions of non-fiction writing.

Links to prior learning (to be made explicit and tested)

Students have explored a range of non-fiction extracts throughout KS3. However, examples of how writers use structure and language to create meaning and effect might be more memorably drawn from prior studies of literature (such that students can recognise this skill within a domain about which they have prior knowledge) before being applied to unseen extracts.

Module 4 - Imaginative Fiction Writing (Paper 1, Section B)

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • What is the typical narrative structure of a short story?
  • What types of short stories forms are there?
  • What are the conventions of the Encounter short story form?
  • What are the conventions of the Isolated Moment short story form?
  • Why are stories ‘psychologically privileged’?
  • What are varied sentence structures?
  • How can sentence structure shape meaning?
  • How do different forms of advanced punctuation (parenthesis, semi colon, hyphen etc) operate grammatically in a sentence?
  • How can punctuation be used to emphasise meaning and guide tone?
  • What is syntax?
  • What is an effective narrative ending?
  • What is an effective narrative opening?
  • What is an effective narrative structure?
  • What is a verbless sentence?
  • What can be the effect of a verbless sentence?
  • What is an adverbial phrase?
  • What is a noun phrase?

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • To be able to craft varied sentence structures for descriptive effect
  • To be able to identify and explore how different sentence structures have been used
  • To able to use a variety of sentence structure to achieve cohesion and impact in writing
  • To able to know how and when to use a range of punctuation
  • To be able to use a range of punctuation to create a specific meaning and tone
  • To be able to manipulate syntax for descriptive or narrative effect.
  • To be able to effectively structure a piece of writing
  • To be able to create a verbless sentence to direct attention
  • To be able to use adverbial phrases to describe effectively
  • To be able to imitate how writers have used verbs and adverbials to create specific mood, atmosphere, character and setting
  • To be able to consciously craft descriptions (using a range of language techniques) that are appropriate to the chosen genre

Links to prior learning (to be made explicit and tested)

Model exemplars for effective imaginative writing should, at least initially, be drawn from the body of work students have studied during KS3, such that students can recognise these skills within a domain about which they have prior knowledge before being applied to their own writing. Shelley, Dickens and Orwell are particularly effective with regard to descriptions of place and character.

Modules 5 & 6 - Comprehension & Analysis of Fiction (Paper 1, Secton A)

Core declarative knowledge: What should students know?

  • What are the timings of the paper?
  • What does each question in section A ask of you?
  • What is evaluation?
  • What is inference?
  • What is the difference between a language feature and a structural feature?
  • What is tone/atmosphere?
  • What is a thesis statement and how do you support it?
  • What is an effective choice of quotation?
  • What is a sustained, detached, critical overview?
  • What is a discriminating reference/quote?

Core procedural knowledge: What should students be able to do?

  • To be able to synthesis information from an extract
  • To be able to make key inferences about specific ideas, themes or methods in an extract
  • To be able to identify key quotes or ideas from an extract
  • To be able to identify pertinent and effective language features in an extract
  • To be able to identify pertinent and effective structural features in an extract
  • To be able to analyse lingustic and structural methods in an extract
  • To be able to use relevant terminology to analyse an extract
  • To be able to evaluate a text critically
  • To be able to create clear, relevant topic sentences and/or thesis statements
  • To be able to effectively structure an answer to each question
  • To be able to write within the appropriate timeframe for each question and for the exam as a whole.

Links to prior learning (to be made explicit and tested)

Students have explored an extremely wide range of powerful fiction throughout KS3. Examples of how writers use structure and language to create meaning and effect should, initially be drawn from said prior studies of literature (such that students can recognise this skill within a domain about which they have prior knowledge) before being applied to unseen extracts.